Online Medical Ethics

1. Describe the three ways in which commercial surrogacy is bad according to Anderson.
Anderson recommends surrogacy as bad because she believes it views women and children as commodities. Surrogacy requires that a woman is paid to carry for a different couple a child until birth then give the child to the biological parents. Though the woman and child may not have a price tag, the manner in which they are treated during the entire interaction identifies them as commodities.
She also believes that surrogacy attaches market norms to a child and anything that is identified using market norms will lose value in one way or the other. She therefore suggests that surrogacy does not encourage the proper valuing of children.

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Anderson also believes that surrogacy does not encourage the proper valuing of women. It does not support the gestational connection a child needs to develop with the mother and forces the mother to separate herself from the impulses of motherhood because to a great extent, the child does not belong to her. It means that she is merely being uses as a tool and nothing more.

2. What is the difference between treatment and enhancement?
Treatment involves addressing a distress whether physical, psychological, and emotional or otherwise, that is affecting the optimal functioning of the person; it can be through medication or using other strategies. Enhancement involves the improvement of one’s characteristics including the physical or mental and it means that the person may not be satisfied with how they are and want perfection which is not human nature.

3. What is cloning and what is my clone’s relation to me?
Cloning is the genetic extension of a person, plant or animal to help examine how these organisms are genetically and make probable decisions on genetic improvement. My clone is to a great extent my copy, I believe that it could qualify as my equal or almost equal. It needs to behave, think and feel in a similar manner. It is therefore my exact reflection.

4. Explain how the right to opportunity poses a worry for the permissibility of cloning.
Every individual needs to be free to be who they are. It is why people are born with unique characteristics that set them apart from others. Even identical twins can never be entirely similar. Even when their physical appearance and other characteristic match, there will be one aspect that set them apart from one another. This is the opportunity for the individual to be unique, different and set apart from everyone. Cloning however interferes with the right of opportunity for children. Since these clones are made in a determined genetic manner, they do not get the opportunity to be unique. As a standard requirement, the right to opportunity means that no one has the right to determine the path another person takes whether genetically or in other forms. Cloning overlooks the right to opportunity as the children are modeled in a similar way as another. It means that they take on almost if not all characteristic of the original making it difficult for them to be unique. Therefore the right to opportunity supersedes the permissibility of cloning as the act goes against the opportunity for one to develop in their unique way. With the right of opportunity in place, cloning does not suffice.

5. Why doesn’t Anderson think it matters that the baby itself is not for sale?
Anderson believes that surrogacy has resulted in immense commercialization of children to the extent that people view it as normal. It has reached a level where parents and surrogate mothers do not mind that there are engaging in the sale of the child. The surrogate mother relinquishes her rights to the child and in turn she receives compensation as dictated by their contract. It has gone on for long to the extent that society does not believe it matters that the baby should not be for sale.

6. What is the objection to athletic enhancement and how might a proponent of enhancement respond?
One’s athletic abilities are born from their talents and advanced by hard work that often involves rigorous training. Pure sports mean that the individual is able to show the world their true self and demonstrate the level to which their hard work can reach. Sports enhancement therefore undermines one’ ability to shows their inborn talent and the far they have gone in enhancing this talent. Enhancement overpowers the athlete’s ability to demonstrate their true sporty nature as their sports capabilities have been enhanced beyond what may be viewed as human nature.
A proponent of sports enhancement would argue that it only helps articulate the athlete’s abilities and helps them perform at their best. They would say that enhancement ensures the athlete can access their optimal point of performance and therefore give their best. Such a proponent would then argue that sports enhancement would result in better performance than when it is absent thus resulting in more appeal to those who identify with specific sports through spectating. Such an individual would argue that without enhancement, he or she cannot deliver their best, they are limited to a certain level in their achievement curve and it would be almost impossible to reach their best when enhancement is missing.

7. What is the difference between surrogacy and adoption? What makes it commercial?
Surrogacy occurs when a couple chooses a different mother to carry for a child. In essence, it occurs when the fetus from a male and female develops in the womb of an entirely different woman until the baby is born. When born, the birth or surrogate mother surrenders all rights to the child and the biological parents take charge of raising him or her. Adoption occurs when a couple or individual decides to take in an already born child from a different mother. There is usually no contractual agreement between parents in adoption and the adopted child is not biologically related to the adoptive parent. Surrogacy requires the surrogate mother to relinquish all rights to the child as the child does not belong to her. In an adoption, the mother may have had the opportunity to raise the child and it is not necessary for her or the father to give up the child entirely.

8. Why does cloning disrupt biological ties?
Cloning interferes with the biological ties of the cloned child. The existence of generations in the world means that one can track their lineage or biological ties from many years or centuries ago. The child, when grown up can associate him or herself with a certain family, clan or generation. This is what comprises his or her biological ties. The child inherits genetic makeup from those I previous generations and specifically those in their immediate family. This also means that the child is highly likely to inherit various physical characteristics from family members from different generations because various aspects of their genetic makeup match. Cloning does not support the development of biological ties especially for the cloned. It is like developing a twin of the child who does not identify with any immediate family members who have existed before him or her. It is like bringing the cloned child into the world without a foundation on which they can identify genetically. When asked the biological ties they recognize with, such a child may not have a way to identify these because they do not exist. Overall, cloning separates the clone from individuals that could have represented biological ties for them but this cannot happen because they are differentiated from the original to a great extent.

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