Corruption and Drug Trafficking Annotated Bibliography

annotated-bibliography Corruption remains to be a pandemic across the world. Most of the corruption across different countries in the world takes place at the government level. There have been a lot of public funds that have been lost to this vice and governments are yet to have the right measures in place to curb this. Corruption is a gateway for many ills in society as most people will do their best to ensure that they use any means to obtain what they want. Illicit drug trafficking is also on the rise across the world as drug dealers fight to evade law elements. All these efforts to traffic drugs are being aided by various factors. In recent times, there have been concerns about the role that corruptions play in the increase in the trafficking of illicit drugs. This is a great concern for governments, people, various organizations, and even civil society. Corruption has been seen to be quite rampant because it involves nearly every arm of government making it hard to stop the vices that it sponsors. There is need for further research to ascertain the motivating factors that have made possible for the illicit drug trade to thrive because of corruption.

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Thesis Statement: Corruption in government has led to an increase in the cases of drug trafficking. Eski, Y., & Buijt, R. (2017). Dockers in Drugs: Policing the Illegal Drug Trade and Port Employee Corruption in the Port of Rotterdam. Policing: A Journal of Policy & Practice, 11(4), 371–386. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/paw044

The study focuses on the Port of Rotterdam that has been seen to be a major point where illegal trade of drugs takes place. Drugs are transported disguised as legitimate goods, and thus the drugs are hidden in containers. Port employees are put in the spotlight as the main people that are involved in the illegal trade. Thematic analysis showed that despite the employees being financially motivated by the government, they have still allowed for corruption to thrive leading to an increase in drug trafficking cases. During interrogations by the police, most employees displayed an intertwine between financial motivations and social justifications. The study indicates that without corruption at the port, it could have been impossible for any form of drugs to pass through and enter the country. The employees belong to the government which justifies the idea that this is the government that is directly aiding in drug trafficking. The study adds to the ideas of the essay on how corruption is the root cause of drug trafficking in the world.

Giommoni, L., Aziani, A., & Berlusconi, G. (2017). How Do Illicit Drugs Move Across Countries? A Network Analysis of the Heroin Supply to Europe. Journal of Drug Issues, 47(2), 217–240. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022042616682426

Heroin is one of the drugs that have been listed as illicit. Despite major efforts that have been put forward towards curbing its sell and use, heroin is still used in various countries. The authors note that illicit drugs are moved across borders before they are able to reach the intended users. Interdiction of the drug in European borders shows efforts by the law enforcement agencies to curb the drug. the authors then note that there is contradicting evidence that has shown that these efforts are not much effective in the way that they are working. The study explores how drugs are shipped across borders. They then specifically highlight various points across the border that have been known to be notorious in these activities. Corruption, social, and geographical factors have been single out as the major factors that have led to an increase in the supply of heroin in European countries. The essential idea that the authors present includes how the activities of illegal trade can be disrupted. The article will be important in expanding more on the topic.

Hughes, C. E., Chalmers, J., & Klimoski, M. (2018). Assessing concordance between trends in high-level drug trafficking and other serious and organized crimes in Australia, 2005-2006 to 2014-2015. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy, 25(3), 217–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687637.2017.1358357

The authors highlight that law enforcement agencies have always pointed at a link between drug trafficking and other societal ills such as terrorism. Many think that the money that is obtained from drug trafficking is used to fund organized crimes. To find the correlation between the two, researchers explored the concordance of drug trafficking in Australia in relation to various organized crimes. The results of the analysis showed that there is a direct relationship between the drug and sex trafficking with corruption and fraud. There are many government agencies that are corrupt, which makes it possible for trafficking to take place. The authors then write that most of these serious crimes might be more complex than the government has estimated them to be. Corruption comes out as a serious issue that needs a greater focus as a way of ensuring that drug trafficking is put to an end. The article is not biased and presents information in the most reliable way. The information will be vital in explaining the need to get rid of corruption as it is the source of many ills where drug trafficking is included.

Shelley, L. I. (2018). Corruption & Illicit Trade. Daedalus, 147(3), 127–143. https://doi.org/10.1162/daed_a_00506 The author of the article notes that the global economy is diverse and consists of various elements such as drugs, natural resources, counterfeit goods, and also people. According to the article, illicit trade has been around for a long time. It involves the selling and buying of commodities that are not considered to be legal. Drugs come out as part of the illicit goods that have been dominating the illegal trade. Shelley writes that it is impossible to have illegal trade taking place without low and high levels of corruption. The author identifies transnational corruption as the main cause of undermining governance, growth of illicit trade, and even a major determinant of all forms of stability in regions. The author has managed to explain various strategies that can be employed to ensure that corruption is combated and thus get rid of illicit trade, which includes the sale of illicit drugs. I will use the information in explaining the convergence of corruption as well as the various strategies that can be used to combat corruption in governments as well as illegal trade.

Trumbore PF, Woo B. Smuggler’s Blues: Examining Why Countries Become Narcotics Transit States Using the New International Narcotics Production and Transit (INAPT) Data Set. International Interactions. 2014;40(5):763-787. doi:10.1080/03050629.2014.917297

In this article, the authors explore the movement of illicit drugs from one country to another. They identify the contributing factors that have made it possible for this trade to thrive in the world. The authors identify that the topic has been understudied, and thus there is a need for more focus on the topic to identify the various determinants for this illegal trade. The findings of the study show that those countries that are more globalized tend to be most probable candidates for the transit of drugs. Among the main reasons for this, the authors identify that corruption has been one of the main factors that have made it possible for the illicit business to go on. With greater political stability, comes greater vulnerability for s state to be involved in this kind of illicit business. The information is important as it explains various ways economic and political stability might not mean that a state cannot be involved in drug trafficking. I will use the information to develop my topic on the role of government corruption of spread of illicit drug trade.

References

Eski, Y., & Buijt, R. (2017). Dockers in Drugs: Policing the Illegal Drug Trade and Port Employee Corruption in the Port of Rotterdam. Policing: A Journal of Policy & Practice, 11(4), 371–386. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/paw044

Giommoni, L., Aziani, A., & Berlusconi, G. (2017). How Do Illicit Drugs Move Across Countries? A Network Analysis of the Heroin Supply to Europe. Journal of Drug Issues, 47(2), 217–240. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022042616682426

Hughes, C. E., Chalmers, J., & Klimoski, M. (2018). Assessing concordance between trends in high-level drug trafficking and other serious and organized crimes in Australia, 2005-2006 to 2014-2015. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy, 25(3), 217–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687637.2017.1358357

Shelley, L. I. (2018). Corruption & Illicit Trade. Daedalus, 147(3), 127–143. https://doi.org/10.1162/daed_a_00506 Trumbore PF, Woo B. Smuggler’s Blues: Examining Why Countries Become Narcotics Transit States Using the New International Narcotics Production and Transit (INAPT) Data Set. International Interactions. 2014;40(5):763-787. doi:10.1080/03050629.2014.917297

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