Fire Shelter Annotated Bibliography

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Source information: B. W Butler, and M. E., Alexander, Eighth international wildland firefighter safety summit: human factors—10 Years Later. April 26-28, 2005; Missoula, MT. Hot Springs, SD: The International Association of Wildland Fire. Available: http://www.iawfonline.org/summit [February 27, 2014].

This source contains information provided by the 8th international wildfire safety summit. The international summit’s main agenda was to discuss how to improve the health and safety of firefighters. To improve the safety, their proposal was to focus on human and social factors that accelerate such health risks. The summit listed some of the significant factors related to wildfire safety. There were numerous presentations done during the summit to fight wildfire issues. Approximately 28 people made oral presentations and poster presentation in their quest to discuss the topics of interest. To have effective wildfire control measures for the next 10 years, the presenters outlined some of the factors that relate to wild-land firefighting. Some of the factors include tools and technology, leadership, culture, human factors, and physiological issues, among others.

This source is relevant to the area of study that pertains to fire shelters. Fire shelters become prominent in this source because it basically deals with the processes of mitigating wild fires. In this case, firefighters need to be equipped with the right tools to fight the raging fires. To manage fires, there is need to seek the assistance of fire shelter experts so that the personnel can fully protect themselves from the tragic effects of fire on their health. It is evident that fires are deadly because a fighter can succumb to the choking toxic smoke and hot gases. Fire shelters are some of the tools known to enhance the safety of firefighters. 

Source information: L. Rodman, A. Kerry, W. Judith, B. Alyssa, W. Michael, D. Jean-Luc, P. François, E. Carleton, “Incorporating field wind data into FIRETEC simulations of the International Crown Fire Modeling Experiment (ICFME): preliminary lessons learned.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2012, 42(5): 879-898.

The article contains relevant information on field experiments regarding the behavior of wildland fires. The background of the research entails the assumption of measurement localities in relation to fire. The researchers performed 20 FIRETEC simulations of ICFME (international crown fire modeling experiment). Additionally, the authors used plot 6 fires and plot 1 fire techniques with the help of horizontal homogenization of fuels. FIRETEC simulations are used to measure the intensity and fluctuation of winds. The study also involved the use of experimentally derived winds to be used as inputs in the model.

This article is important to this field of engineering in more than one way. According to the authors of this article, the fluctuation of winds is an important factor to consider while studying the models of wind around fire environments. Wind intensity and fluctuation have been found to be key contributing factors to the spread of winds at the location of wildland fires. With this information and the related experimental models under the dispensation of the public, there is no doubt fire shelters contribute largely to the situation. Wind fluctuations and velocities are important elements that can be used to design effective fire shelters to mitigate any type of inferno. The design of fire shelters requires competent prior research to establish the most appropriate design that fits the situation in question. 

Article Information: B.W. Butler, R.D. Ottmar, T.S. Rupp, R. Jandt, E. Miller, K. Howard, R. Schmoll, S. Theisen, R.E. Vihnanek, D. Jimenez, “Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2013, 43(1): 97-102.

This article provides information on the relationship between the quantity of fuel and fire behavior. The authors are basically dealing with fire reduction strategies in boreal forest. The two main techniques include manual and mechanical fuel treatment. Manual and chemical treatments entail shearblading and thinning, respectively. The main aim of the research was to determine the applicability of four of the best fuel treatment techniques. The treatments methods take advantage of concepts such as the measure of fire intensity. The measurement takes place in during a single burn. The four techniques that the authors proposed include thinning trees, shearblading followed by leaving debris, and shearblading followed by pilling the debris. The authors found the maximum heat that fire can produce is 1500 Celsius degrees.

The article relates to the engineering concept of designing fire shelters. The process of shredding and thinning tree branches requires aggressiveness. Additionally, the fire produces a lot of heat that may harm the health of firefighters. Relatively, it would be important to design the most appropriate fire shelter with heat resistant properties. The research is helpful because it will enable engineers to understand the concepts that are readily applicable in fire breakout situations to mitigate potential health risks and destruction of the environment. The drafted report is, therefore, relevant for both engineers and firefighters who seek the service of fire shelters to carry out their combative duties. 

J. D. Cohen, “Relating flame radiation to home ignition using modeling and experimental crown fires.”Can. J. For. Res., 2004, 34(8): 1616-1626.

The author conducts a prospective study wild and urban fire ignition processes. Since fires are dependent on home ignition, it is necessary to examine the ignition requirements. Based on the findings, the author based his facts on a physicaltheoretical model. The model considers idea heat transfer conditions within the fire infested region of urban and wild fire scenes. The author investigated the application of crown fire experiments and wood flux sensors in determining the issue of direct flame-heating. Direct flame heating scenario is applicable in determining the possibility of home ignitions in case of the occurrence of wildland fires. The results of the experiment showed that the flame radiation model was not accurate in estimating the real distance between the source of flame and the structure. He also discovered that forest canopy had the ability of attenuating the fire from the source to the structure. The author concludes that the flame-to-structure distance is detectable by a crown fire modeling and ignition modeling.

The article completely deals with the spread of fire from wildland locations to the structures. It considers the distance between the structure and the source of fire and how fire propels itself from the source to other areas. The study is comprehensive because it can enable fire shelter developers to come up with the best design of these tools to serve the purpose of overwhelming the fire before it fully consumes the affected structures. There are numerous areas of study that focus on the development of fire and its spread from the source to urban structures. One of the areas of study is the design of fire shelters to be used by fire fighters to mitigate the spread of fire to other areas. 

Bibliography

B. W Butler, and M. E., Alexander, Eighth international wildland firefighter safety summit:

            human factors—10 Years Later. April 26-28, 2005; Missoula, MT. Hot Springs, SD:

            The International Association of Wildland Fire. Available: http://www.iawfonline.

            org/summit [February 27, 2014].

L. Rodman, A. Kerry, W. Judith, B. Alyssa, W. Michael, D. Jean-Luc, P. François, E.

            Carleton, “Incorporating field wind data into FIRETEC simulations of the

            International Crown Fire Modeling Experiment (ICFME): preliminary lessons

            learned.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2012, 42(5): 879-898.

B.W. Butler, R.D. Ottmar, T.S. Rupp, R. Jandt, E. Miller, K. Howard, R. Schmoll, S.

            Theisen, R.E. Vihnanek, D. Jimenez, “Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction

            treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research,

 2013, 43(1): 97-102.

J. D. Cohen, “ Relating flame radiation to home ignition using modeling and experimental

            crown fires.”Can. J. For. Res., 2004, 34(8): 1616-1626.

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