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Cassell, D. K., & Gleaves, D. H. (2009). The encyclopedia of obesity and eating disorders.

Infobase Publishing.

The book provides the data about the poor diets that can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders. It combines different data from diverse researches. The literature has an advantage of combining data from various sources, thus giving more reliable information.

Conway, D. (Ed.). (2011). Pregnancy in the Obese Woman: Clinical Management. John Wiley

& Sons.

Conway discuses about pregnancy, obesity and the risks that are associated with it to both the mother and the infants. The study used a large data population covering a period of 1993 to 2003. The book shows the pregnancy, obesity rate and measures that can be taken to reduce it. The source is of resourceful because it covers research from many other sources.

Choudhary, M. I. (Ed.). (2011). Anti-obesity Drug Discovery and Development (Vol. 1).

Bentham Science Publishers.

This book projects the future prevalence of obesity based on national survey data that was collected up to 2004. The source is reliable because it uses data that covers a considerable long period of time. The source gives a proper understanding of obesity in the US. The use of simple vocabulary is a plus in this article.

Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., legal, K. M., & Dietz, W. H. (2000). Establishing a standard

definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. Bmj, 320 (7244), 1240.

The journal aims at developing internationally accepted definition of a child overweight and obesity. The survey represents six large nationwide representatives cross sectional growth studies. The data used in this source cover different countries and thus it is a representative survey.

Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., & Johnson, C. L. (2002). Prevalence and trends in

Obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. Jama, 288(14), 1723-1727.

This journal examines the prevalence of overweight in the US. The survey covers the period between 1978 and 1999. This provides a reliable data for a research because of the large period coverage. It provides effects and how to reduce obesity thus, it is unbiased.

Hedley, A. A., et al.  (2004). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children,

Adolescents, and adults, 1999-2002. Jama, 291(23), 2847-2850.

This examines the increase in the rate of obesity in the US in the last two decades. Has an objective of updating prevalence estimates of overweight in the region. It is a good source for it provides latest research data that is the last two decades. The data is from a reliable source of National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey.

Mokdad, A. H., et al.  (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk

factors, 2001. Jama, 289(1), 76-79.

The journal examines the high rate of obesity as a major cause of increased mortality rate in the US. The journal covers the survey taken in 2001 on obesity and diabetes. The journal also examines other diseases that relate to obesity. It is a useful source as it examines both the obesity and its related diseases.

National Institute of Health. (2013). How Are Overweight and Obesity Treated?.  Retrieved from

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/treatment.html

How to overcome and treat obesity has been explained well in this online article. The use of simple English makes the audience to familiarize with the guide. This is a guide for all groups thus very reliable.

National Institute of Health. (2013). What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity?

Department of health and human science. Retrieved from 

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/risks.html

This is an article from the national institute of health, which shows how obesity has become the cause of major health problem today.  In the article, multiple diseases that are linked to obesity have been listed. The use of practical examples makes the article relevant.

Nyholm, M., et al. (2007). The Validity of Obesity Based on Selfreported Weight and Height:

Implications for Population Studies. Obesity, 15(1), 197-197.

The journal seeks to validate the self reported information on height and weight in an adult population and assess the obesity based on self-reported information. The source is reliable because it covers a cross sectional survey consisting a great number of participants. Weight and height are compared in assessing whether they are related to obesity.

Puhl, R. M., & Heuer, C. A. (2009). The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity, 17 (5),

941-964.

This journal covers the stigma that people suffering from obesity undergoes that include prejudice and discrimination. It explains that obesity is a health and a social problem. It is a good source for it creates a good understanding of the problems that people suffering from obesity undergoes.

Ogden, C. L., et al. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-

2004. Jama, 295(13), 1549-1555.

It provides current estimates of prevalence and trends of overweight in children and adults in the US. This source gives the current statistics of obesity in the US. The source examines the trends in obesity and can help to project future position.  The source also examines the effect of overweight and how it relates to obesity.

Boero, N. (2012). Killer Fat: Media, Medicine, and Morals in the American" Obesity Epidemic”. Rutgers University Press.

The literature examines obesity as a major worldwide public health epidemic. It looks at the prevalence and severity of obesity in childhood in details. A good part of it explains the proper diets and nutrition that can prevent obesity. It is a good source as it covers different issues concerning obesity.

Karlsson, J., Taft, C., Rydén, A., Sjöström, L., & Sullivan, M. (2007). Ten-year trends in health-related quality of life after surgical and conventional treatment for severe obesity: the SOS intervention study. International journal of obesity,31(8), 1248-1261.     

This article says that although obesity has multiple health challenges, there is a linked heart complication associated with the situation. From a series of studies, the article argues that obesity exposes the body against future heart related problems. The article is reliable because a lot of research has been done to make a conclusion.

World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic (No.

894). World Health Organization.

This report examines the urgent actions that can be taken to combat the growing rate of obesity and overweight.  It also explains the effects of obesity in industrialized and developing countries. The appropriate public health approaches are well covered and other proper measures to respond to obesity.


 

EVIDENCE

INTERPRETATION

“Physical proportions strived for 
and glorified during one era or generation are avoided, even stigmatized, in another” (Cassell, & Gleaves, 2009).

This is a clear indication of how being fat was view as sign of wealth in earlier generations but now the current generation has stigmatized it.

“Obesity is becoming an increasing global healthcare challenge, and overweight expecting mothers are at risk of complications during their pregnancy” (Conway, 2011)

This clearly shows how obesity can lead to complications in pregnant women

“Obesity is a complex health problem, caused by a number of factors such as excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, genetic predisposition, endocrine disorders, medications and psychiatric illnesses” (Choudhary, 2011).

Indications of different causes of obesity are listed here to remove the myths about obesity.

“Because of their public health importance, the trends in child obesity should be closely monitored” (Cole, Bellizzi, legal, & Dietz, 2000).

Obesity is manageable if motoring is done at tender stage.

“Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic conditions including diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, stroke, heart disease, certain cancers, and arthritis.” (Flegal, Carroll, Ogden, & Johnson, 2002).

Obesity can lead to many other life-long complications and undesired conditions.

“For boys aged 6 through 19 years, Mexican American boys had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than their non-Hispanic white and black counterparts.” (Hedley et al, 2004).

This is a clear picture of how obesity is not evenly distributed among the races in the US.

“Both overweight and obesity were significantly associated with diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, asthma, arthritis, and fair or poor health status” (Mokdad, Ford, Bowman, Dietz, Vinicor, Bales, & Marks, 2003)

Obesity and overweight are predisposing factors for terminal illness that can be avoided easily.

“Lifestyle changes can help you and your families achieve long-term weight-loss success.” (National Institute of Health, 2013).

Since obesity is a lifestyle problem, efforts to change that lifestyle are the best if encouraged earlier.

“The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in the United States increased markedly during the last decade” (National Institute of Health, 2013).

This is clear indication that obesity is a growing trend in recent years.

“However, BMI is still a simple and cost-effective assessment to describe obesity and risk factors in a population” (Nyholm, et al. 2007)

Despite there being an easier way of measuring obesity, people are not aware there are obese.

“Self-report studies indicate that perceptions of weight-based employment discrimination remain common among obese persons” (Puhl, & Heuer, 2009).

Stigma is rampant among obese people.

“Between 1980 and 2002, obesity prevalence doubled in adults aged 20 years or older and overweight prevalence tripled in children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years” (Ogden, et al. 2006)

This shows how fast obesity is spreading among population in the US.

In the past decade, obesity has emerged as a major public health concern in the United States and abroad.” (Boero, N. (2012). 

Obesity is gaining importance as a world major health problem.

“However, difficulties among some surgical patients to control and maintain weight loss over time should not be ignored.” (Karlsson, Taft, Rydén, Sjöström, & Sullivan, 2007)

Surgical remedy for obesity is not the best solution since some patients are unable to maintain weight loss.

“ a common standard should allow the comparative evaluation of childhood obesity internationally” (World Health Organization, 2000)

The show how important obesity is to the world at large.