Sample Annotated Bibliographies

Fire Shelter Annotated Bibliography

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Source information: B. W Butler, and M. E., Alexander, Eighth international wildland firefighter safety summit: human factors—10 Years Later. April 26-28, 2005; Missoula, MT. Hot Springs, SD: The International Association of Wildland Fire. Available: [February 27, 2014].

This source contains information provided by the 8th international wildfire safety summit. The international summit’s main agenda was to discuss how to improve the health and safety of firefighters. To improve the safety, their proposal was to focus on human and social factors that accelerate such health risks. The summit listed some of the significant factors related to wildfire safety. There were numerous presentations done during the summit to fight wildfire issues. Approximately 28 people made oral presentations and poster presentation in their quest to discuss the topics of interest. To have effective wildfire control measures for the next 10 years, the presenters outlined some of the factors that relate to wild-land firefighting. Some of the factors include tools and technology, leadership, culture, human factors, and physiological issues, among others.

This source is relevant to the area of study that pertains to fire shelters. Fire shelters become prominent in this source because it basically deals with the processes of mitigating wild fires. In this case, firefighters need to be equipped with the right tools to fight the raging fires. To manage fires, there is need to seek the assistance of fire shelter experts so that the personnel can fully protect themselves from the tragic effects of fire on their health. It is evident that fires are deadly because a fighter can succumb to the choking toxic smoke and hot gases. Fire shelters are some of the tools known to enhance the safety of firefighters. 

Source information: L. Rodman, A. Kerry, W. Judith, B. Alyssa, W. Michael, D. Jean-Luc, P. François, E. Carleton, “Incorporating field wind data into FIRETEC simulations of the International Crown Fire Modeling Experiment (ICFME): preliminary lessons learned.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2012, 42(5): 879-898.

The article contains relevant information on field experiments regarding the behavior of wildland fires. The background of the research entails the assumption of measurement localities in relation to fire. The researchers performed 20 FIRETEC simulations of ICFME (international crown fire modeling experiment). Additionally, the authors used plot 6 fires and plot 1 fire techniques with the help of horizontal homogenization of fuels. FIRETEC simulations are used to measure the intensity and fluctuation of winds. The study also involved the use of experimentally derived winds to be used as inputs in the model.

This article is important to this field of engineering in more than one way. According to the authors of this article, the fluctuation of winds is an important factor to consider while studying the models of wind around fire environments. Wind intensity and fluctuation have been found to be key contributing factors to the spread of winds at the location of wildland fires. With this information and the related experimental models under the dispensation of the public, there is no doubt fire shelters contribute largely to the situation. Wind fluctuations and velocities are important elements that can be used to design effective fire shelters to mitigate any type of inferno. The design of fire shelters requires competent prior research to establish the most appropriate design that fits the situation in question. 

Article Information: B.W. Butler, R.D. Ottmar, T.S. Rupp, R. Jandt, E. Miller, K. Howard, R. Schmoll, S. Theisen, R.E. Vihnanek, D. Jimenez, “Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2013, 43(1): 97-102.

This article provides information on the relationship between the quantity of fuel and fire behavior. The authors are basically dealing with fire reduction strategies in boreal forest. The two main techniques include manual and mechanical fuel treatment. Manual and chemical treatments entail shearblading and thinning, respectively. The main aim of the research was to determine the applicability of four of the best fuel treatment techniques. The treatments methods take advantage of concepts such as the measure of fire intensity. The measurement takes place in during a single burn. The four techniques that the authors proposed include thinning trees, shearblading followed by leaving debris, and shearblading followed by pilling the debris. The authors found the maximum heat that fire can produce is 1500 Celsius degrees.

The article relates to the engineering concept of designing fire shelters. The process of shredding and thinning tree branches requires aggressiveness. Additionally, the fire produces a lot of heat that may harm the health of firefighters. Relatively, it would be important to design the most appropriate fire shelter with heat resistant properties. The research is helpful because it will enable engineers to understand the concepts that are readily applicable in fire breakout situations to mitigate potential health risks and destruction of the environment. The drafted report is, therefore, relevant for both engineers and firefighters who seek the service of fire shelters to carry out their combative duties. 

J. D. Cohen, “Relating flame radiation to home ignition using modeling and experimental crown fires.”Can. J. For. Res., 2004, 34(8): 1616-1626.

The author conducts a prospective study wild and urban fire ignition processes. Since fires are dependent on home ignition, it is necessary to examine the ignition requirements. Based on the findings, the author based his facts on a physicaltheoretical model. The model considers idea heat transfer conditions within the fire infested region of urban and wild fire scenes. The author investigated the application of crown fire experiments and wood flux sensors in determining the issue of direct flame-heating. Direct flame heating scenario is applicable in determining the possibility of home ignitions in case of the occurrence of wildland fires. The results of the experiment showed that the flame radiation model was not accurate in estimating the real distance between the source of flame and the structure. He also discovered that forest canopy had the ability of attenuating the fire from the source to the structure. The author concludes that the flame-to-structure distance is detectable by a crown fire modeling and ignition modeling.

The article completely deals with the spread of fire from wildland locations to the structures. It considers the distance between the structure and the source of fire and how fire propels itself from the source to other areas. The study is comprehensive because it can enable fire shelter developers to come up with the best design of these tools to serve the purpose of overwhelming the fire before it fully consumes the affected structures. There are numerous areas of study that focus on the development of fire and its spread from the source to urban structures. One of the areas of study is the design of fire shelters to be used by fire fighters to mitigate the spread of fire to other areas. 


B. W Butler, and M. E., Alexander, Eighth international wildland firefighter safety summit:

            human factors—10 Years Later. April 26-28, 2005; Missoula, MT. Hot Springs, SD:

            The International Association of Wildland Fire. Available: http://www.iawfonline.

            org/summit [February 27, 2014].

L. Rodman, A. Kerry, W. Judith, B. Alyssa, W. Michael, D. Jean-Luc, P. François, E.

            Carleton, “Incorporating field wind data into FIRETEC simulations of the

            International Crown Fire Modeling Experiment (ICFME): preliminary lessons

            learned.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2012, 42(5): 879-898.

B.W. Butler, R.D. Ottmar, T.S. Rupp, R. Jandt, E. Miller, K. Howard, R. Schmoll, S.

            Theisen, R.E. Vihnanek, D. Jimenez, “Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction

            treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research,

 2013, 43(1): 97-102.

J. D. Cohen, “ Relating flame radiation to home ignition using modeling and experimental

            crown fires.”Can. J. For. Res., 2004, 34(8): 1616-1626.

Check below the PDF sample.

Biography Sample “A Summary of the Rights of British America (July 1774)” by Thomas Jefferson

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Document Analysis Paper

“A Summary of the Rights of British America (July 1774)” by Thomas Jefferson


Jefferson’s biography is historically rich because of its similarity with historical context in which he wrote A Summary of the Rights of British America 1774.[1] Thomas Jefferson was born in 1743 in Virginia. His life was full of transformational events that later turned him into a fierce and skilful political writer. As a trained lawyer, he served in various government positions as county lieutenant and as a magistrate.[2]  As a member of the Continental Congress, he was courageous enough to draft the Declaration of Independence in 1776. His ideologies are reflected in the draft. For instance, he states that all men have equal rights irrespective of their race, age, or economic status. Additionally, he claimed that the state should be the servant but not the master of the people.

After 1776, he served as a legislature on returning to Virginia. He later served as the governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781. In 1784, he served in France’s public service as trade commissioner and later as minister.[3] He later returned to the United States, where he served as secretary of state under the leadership of George Washington. He was criticized for practicing pro-British policies in America. In 1976, he was the presidential candidate but became vice president after he lost to John Adams. He later became president four years later after defeating Adams.

Historical Context

The document addresses events at a time when America was about to declare its independence from the British colonialism. The document’s historical context is the atmosphere that was set to welcome the Declaration of Independence. The Continental Congress was the main organ that came up with the statement “Declaration of Independence.” The draft containing the contents of declaration of independence was done in July 1776 under the stewardship of the Continental Congress. The Continental Congress declared that the 13 American colonies under the governance of Britain should be left to be independent.[4]

The main reason for declaring independence was to curb the controversy that was enhancing animosity between the thirteen American colonies and Great Britain. The colonies wanted a declaration to be made to make them independent, and not a part of the British Empire. Consequently, they formed a union that would be a complete nation i.e. the United States of America. At this time, John Adams was the leader. He was pushing for independence that was later approved on the second day of July. Before then, a committee was in place to draft the formal declaration that the congress would use to vote on independence.

Adams directed the committee to choose Thomas Jefferson as the composer of the original draft of the document. The congress would then use the draft to produce the final version of the document. The Congress declared independence from Great Britain officially on July 2 through voting. At this time, it was almost two years after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary war. The national day of celebrating the historic event is currently on July 4. However, Adams preferred July 2 as the most appropriate date to celebrate the historic event that transformed the American leadership. It is on this day that the United States started enjoying the fruits of liberty. Livery was one of the key reasons of declaring independence.[5]

The document by Thomas Jefferson responds to the historical context of the Declaration of Independence by America. There are two key elements that link up the two cases. First, Thomas Jefferson is repeatedly mentioned in history as a key contributor while serving in the International Congress. He was appointed by the president to draft the document that would be used by the Congress to declare independence. Second, the author’s biography indicates that he played key roles as an advocate of liberty in the American society. He suggested that America should be independent and refrain from issues that would jeopardize its relationship with Great Britain.

Summary Description

The document is an address to the continental congress by Thomas Jefferson on issues relating to the grievances of Americans under the colonialism of Great Britain. The contents of the document were addressed to the King as a part of information that Jefferson wanted him to know. The king was supposed to reevaluate the conduct of his parliament. The document is against the parliament’s vote to govern the thirteen colonies. According to Jefferson, the thirteen colonies were supposed to be set free because they were founded and thus independent from the British rule. The document addresses more of these grievances in such a manner that it is both informative and educative. The author addresses a wide spectrum of audience in this document. Therefore, the document is not private, but public.

The organization of the document has similarities with any other historical document that portrays a certain event in the past. The author uses informative technique of literary writing. He avoids the use of first person’s perspective. He strictly applied the basic concepts of documentation that most authors use in their work. Some of the most important topics that the author addresses include the welfare of Americans at that time, the relationship between Americans and the British immigrants. The author uses the chronological organization to organize his topics. The events are chronological because they adhere to a time series in history that describe each event. Through this organization, the author was able to illustrate all occurrences and their justification.

Chronological organization is advantageous to topical organization especially when writing history documents. The author was motivated to use the former organization to formulate a platform that would allow him record the events as they occurred. Chronological organization is also justified because of its relevance in enhancing readability and understanding the document. Consequently, it is easier for the reader to understand a document that adheres to the format of chronological organization.


In the document, the author’s main argument is that Great Britain should shun all activities that relate to colonization of the thirteen American colonies. In the document, Jefferson states, “America was conquered, and her settlements made and firmly established, at the expense of individuals, and not of the British public. Their own blood was spilt in acquiring lands for their settlement, their own fortunes expended in making that settlement effectual.”[6] Accusations in this document clearly relate it to the Declaration of Independence. The author is championing for the rights of Americans who struggled to obtain the settlements. It would therefore be impossible for British immigrants to colonize them and impose imperialism in their own land.

The author’s response to the atrocities committed in America during this historic era is evident in the document. The author does not recede from defining the circumstances that would lead to an uprising of liberation at that time. The circumstances at this time were related to the issue of denying American citizens their rights and freedom. In the document, the author responds to the cries of Americans who wanted to be liberated from colonialism. They wanted the thirteen colonies to be declared independent and free from British colonialism. Jefferson was their spokesperson in addressing such grievances.

Basing on my assessment of declaration of independence, I think the author wanted full liberation of Americans. He was interested in seeing a fully liberated Americans in their own land. The author wrote the document as part of his sentiments to resist colonialism in the thirteen American colonies. The author was actively involved in drafting the declaration of independence that the Congress later adopted. He had the intentions of portraying his subjectivity regarding independence of Americans from British colonialism. According to the document, the author had several things in mind that he wanted to achieve. He wanted the King of Britain to consider safeguarding the lives of Americans by allowing them to enjoy their rights unconditionally. He was hopeful that his sentiments would be heard and that Americans would rejoice in liberation.


American National Biography Online. Thomas Jefferson., 2014. Accessed February

            6, 2014 at


Reynolds, David. America, Empire of Liberty: A New History. London: Allen Lane, 2009.

Thomas Jefferson. A Summary of the Rights of British America (July 1774). Williamsburg:

            Clementina Rind, 1774. 

[1] American National Biography Online. “Thomas Jefferson”., 2014. February 6, 2014)

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

[5] David Reynolds. America, Empire of Liberty: A New History. (London: Allen Lane, 2009), p. 4.

[6] Thomas Jefferson. “A Summary of the Rights of British America (July 1774)” (Williamsburg: Clementina Rind, 1774).

Annotated Bibliography sample: Should obesity be regarded as a serious health problem?

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Cassell, D. K., & Gleaves, D. H. (2009). The encyclopedia of obesity and eating disorders.

Infobase Publishing.

The book provides the data about the poor diets that can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders. It combines different data from diverse researches. The literature has an advantage of combining data from various sources, thus giving more reliable information.

Conway, D. (Ed.). (2011). Pregnancy in the Obese Woman: Clinical Management. John Wiley

& Sons.

Conway discuses about pregnancy, obesity and the risks that are associated with it to both the mother and the infants. The study used a large data population covering a period of 1993 to 2003. The book shows the pregnancy, obesity rate and measures that can be taken to reduce it. The source is of resourceful because it covers research from many other sources.

Choudhary, M. I. (Ed.). (2011). Anti-obesity Drug Discovery and Development (Vol. 1).

Bentham Science Publishers.

This book projects the future prevalence of obesity based on national survey data that was collected up to 2004. The source is reliable because it uses data that covers a considerable long period of time. The source gives a proper understanding of obesity in the US. The use of simple vocabulary is a plus in this article.

Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., legal, K. M., & Dietz, W. H. (2000). Establishing a standard

definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. Bmj, 320 (7244), 1240.

The journal aims at developing internationally accepted definition of a child overweight and obesity. The survey represents six large nationwide representatives cross sectional growth studies. The data used in this source cover different countries and thus it is a representative survey.

Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., & Johnson, C. L. (2002). Prevalence and trends in

Obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. Jama, 288(14), 1723-1727.

This journal examines the prevalence of overweight in the US. The survey covers the period between 1978 and 1999. This provides a reliable data for a research because of the large period coverage. It provides effects and how to reduce obesity thus, it is unbiased.

Hedley, A. A., et al.  (2004). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children,

Adolescents, and adults, 1999-2002. Jama, 291(23), 2847-2850.

This examines the increase in the rate of obesity in the US in the last two decades. Has an objective of updating prevalence estimates of overweight in the region. It is a good source for it provides latest research data that is the last two decades. The data is from a reliable source of National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey.

Mokdad, A. H., et al.  (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk

factors, 2001. Jama, 289(1), 76-79.

The journal examines the high rate of obesity as a major cause of increased mortality rate in the US. The journal covers the survey taken in 2001 on obesity and diabetes. The journal also examines other diseases that relate to obesity. It is a useful source as it examines both the obesity and its related diseases.

National Institute of Health. (2013). How Are Overweight and Obesity Treated?.  Retrieved from

How to overcome and treat obesity has been explained well in this online article. The use of simple English makes the audience to familiarize with the guide. This is a guide for all groups thus very reliable.

National Institute of Health. (2013). What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity?

Department of health and human science. Retrieved from

This is an article from the national institute of health, which shows how obesity has become the cause of major health problem today.  In the article, multiple diseases that are linked to obesity have been listed. The use of practical examples makes the article relevant.

Nyholm, M., et al. (2007). The Validity of Obesity Based on Selfreported Weight and Height:

Implications for Population Studies. Obesity, 15(1), 197-197.

The journal seeks to validate the self reported information on height and weight in an adult population and assess the obesity based on self-reported information. The source is reliable because it covers a cross sectional survey consisting a great number of participants. Weight and height are compared in assessing whether they are related to obesity.

Puhl, R. M., & Heuer, C. A. (2009). The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity, 17 (5),


This journal covers the stigma that people suffering from obesity undergoes that include prejudice and discrimination. It explains that obesity is a health and a social problem. It is a good source for it creates a good understanding of the problems that people suffering from obesity undergoes.

Ogden, C. L., et al. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-

2004. Jama, 295(13), 1549-1555.

It provides current estimates of prevalence and trends of overweight in children and adults in the US. This source gives the current statistics of obesity in the US. The source examines the trends in obesity and can help to project future position.  The source also examines the effect of overweight and how it relates to obesity.

Boero, N. (2012). Killer Fat: Media, Medicine, and Morals in the American" Obesity Epidemic”. Rutgers University Press.

The literature examines obesity as a major worldwide public health epidemic. It looks at the prevalence and severity of obesity in childhood in details. A good part of it explains the proper diets and nutrition that can prevent obesity. It is a good source as it covers different issues concerning obesity.

Karlsson, J., Taft, C., Rydén, A., Sjöström, L., & Sullivan, M. (2007). Ten-year trends in health-related quality of life after surgical and conventional treatment for severe obesity: the SOS intervention study. International journal of obesity,31(8), 1248-1261.     

This article says that although obesity has multiple health challenges, there is a linked heart complication associated with the situation. From a series of studies, the article argues that obesity exposes the body against future heart related problems. The article is reliable because a lot of research has been done to make a conclusion.

World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic (No.

894). World Health Organization.

This report examines the urgent actions that can be taken to combat the growing rate of obesity and overweight.  It also explains the effects of obesity in industrialized and developing countries. The appropriate public health approaches are well covered and other proper measures to respond to obesity.




“Physical proportions strived for 
and glorified during one era or generation are avoided, even stigmatized, in another” (Cassell, & Gleaves, 2009).

This is a clear indication of how being fat was view as sign of wealth in earlier generations but now the current generation has stigmatized it.

“Obesity is becoming an increasing global healthcare challenge, and overweight expecting mothers are at risk of complications during their pregnancy” (Conway, 2011)

This clearly shows how obesity can lead to complications in pregnant women

“Obesity is a complex health problem, caused by a number of factors such as excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, genetic predisposition, endocrine disorders, medications and psychiatric illnesses” (Choudhary, 2011).

Indications of different causes of obesity are listed here to remove the myths about obesity.

“Because of their public health importance, the trends in child obesity should be closely monitored” (Cole, Bellizzi, legal, & Dietz, 2000).

Obesity is manageable if motoring is done at tender stage.

“Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic conditions including diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, stroke, heart disease, certain cancers, and arthritis.” (Flegal, Carroll, Ogden, & Johnson, 2002).

Obesity can lead to many other life-long complications and undesired conditions.

“For boys aged 6 through 19 years, Mexican American boys had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than their non-Hispanic white and black counterparts.” (Hedley et al, 2004).

This is a clear picture of how obesity is not evenly distributed among the races in the US.

“Both overweight and obesity were significantly associated with diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, asthma, arthritis, and fair or poor health status” (Mokdad, Ford, Bowman, Dietz, Vinicor, Bales, & Marks, 2003)

Obesity and overweight are predisposing factors for terminal illness that can be avoided easily.

“Lifestyle changes can help you and your families achieve long-term weight-loss success.” (National Institute of Health, 2013).

Since obesity is a lifestyle problem, efforts to change that lifestyle are the best if encouraged earlier.

“The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in the United States increased markedly during the last decade” (National Institute of Health, 2013).

This is clear indication that obesity is a growing trend in recent years.

“However, BMI is still a simple and cost-effective assessment to describe obesity and risk factors in a population” (Nyholm, et al. 2007)

Despite there being an easier way of measuring obesity, people are not aware there are obese.

“Self-report studies indicate that perceptions of weight-based employment discrimination remain common among obese persons” (Puhl, & Heuer, 2009).

Stigma is rampant among obese people.

“Between 1980 and 2002, obesity prevalence doubled in adults aged 20 years or older and overweight prevalence tripled in children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years” (Ogden, et al. 2006)

This shows how fast obesity is spreading among population in the US.

In the past decade, obesity has emerged as a major public health concern in the United States and abroad.” (Boero, N. (2012). 

Obesity is gaining importance as a world major health problem.

“However, difficulties among some surgical patients to control and maintain weight loss over time should not be ignored.” (Karlsson, Taft, Rydén, Sjöström, & Sullivan, 2007)

Surgical remedy for obesity is not the best solution since some patients are unable to maintain weight loss.

“ a common standard should allow the comparative evaluation of childhood obesity internationally” (World Health Organization, 2000)

The show how important obesity is to the world at large.