Sample Movie Reviews
Apocalypse is a film that features Vietnamese at war. This reveals how people from Vietnam were tired of taking orders from the Americans thus started a revolution meant to refute humiliation by their superiors. Many people incurred severe injuries during the war while others lost their minds due to the trauma they experienced. Benjamin is the main character, and he is suffering from posttraumatic experience, which affects him to the extent of divorcing his wife. Well organization coupled with employing of diverse styles in this film has immensely helped in bringing out its themes effectively. Besides, editing of the film has benefit to it owing to its alignment of diverse scenes that comprises the film, hence making both the characters and their settings are in harmony.
Apocalypse film starts with the words “Apocalypse Now.” Viewers hear the sound of a helicopter behind the screen and they are able to see a beautiful jungle that is full of life. Some minutes later a-bomb, napalm, and fire are experienced all over the jungle. Viewers see the helicopters as they drop the bombs and the destruction that is taking place. A beautiful man appears in the jungle but his image is upside down, he is shell-shocked and he looks lifeless. The man is smoking a cigarette that appears as if it is getting life from the fire of destruction. The man is alive but appears to be dead since he is hallucinating or he is remembering something in his life.
Lighting is a crucial element in the movie together with the fogs and shadows. The look of the film is dark and shadowy incorporating the theme of war and the dark journey soldiers undertake. Willard begins the journey riding his boat at dusk. As the journey begins light are high but the film gets darker as the journey gets deeper and deeper. Lighting in the film represents dangers in the jungle and the metaphorical journey soldiers undertake in spiritual land. Lights in the film are brash and painful to the eyes as the blacks are demanding and tiresome. There are continuous shadows in the film whenever there is light. This is highly pronounced in the dossier on Kurtz (Marco, 2005, pp. 23). Even though dossier is met at the end, every close up of dossier has a deep shadow that separates it into half. This ensures that the viewers get a glimpse of everything happening in the movie. Practical lights are used in the shot scenes creating a realistic effect. No light is used in the boat thus creating an authentic situation.
The sounds in the movie apocalypse precede the visuals. Most people rely on their ability to see but this is not the case in a war zone. This is because it is too dark to trust the eyes alone and people need to use their ears as well. Many films carve out of light but apocalypse is carved out of darkness. Darkness signifies the journey people are taking toward the heat of darkness, thus extremely low light characterizes the film (Thompson, 2007, pp. 234). Characters in the film are covered. These characters are masked closed up or they hard to understand. Viewers need to go closer to understand the characters in the film.
Colors in the film apocalypse reflect the emotions and journey. The movie starts with saturated colors putting the viewer in a different realm. The descriptions are deep and they are reminding the viewer that they still in earth even though they at war. At the start of the journey, we see the color of fog that deepens as Willard continues with the journey. The colors are soft as Willard continues with the journey.
Slow movement of cameras marks the movie apocalypse. The cameras are stationed in the boat for the viewer to see what the soldiers are experiencing. There are slow tracks, pans and slow movements I the film that are not fascinating. An interesting tracking shot is only interesting at the beginning of the movie when Willard is assigned the task of killing Kurtz. The viewer and the characters live and breathe from the same environment because cameras do not move often. There are few camera movements especially when Kilgore starts taking about Napalm (Galloway, 1996 pp. 256). He is always in full company of his soldiers when he is talking about Napalm. An effective tracking shot is when Willard is in Kurtz compound as he hears the divided souls of Kurtz. Willard is at the left side of the camera in his every interaction with Kurtz.
According to Keller (2009), apocalypse utilizes the aspect of light while capturing the scenes, mainly evident in the way the viewers are able to see clearly, when soldiers are, in action in the jungle. Lighting in this film distinguishes between day and night. It also gives a sense of horror when something terrible is about to happen (Vineyard, 2000). Dark light in the hotel where the captain lives suggests that he is going through a rough time. This is true because he does not enjoy the luxury facilities in the hotel but prefers to stay indoors.
Camera movement in the film Apocalypse has taken into account many factors of the film for it to become a success (Lisboa, 2011, pp. 345). The characters in this film have assumed certain roles in the film that fit them well especially their traits. Mobile framing has incorporated various scenes to bring authenticity in the movie. When Captain Benjamin is in his hotel room, mobile framing captures the cigarettes and the liquor in the room mainly not intended to be in the film. The film has tilted the cameras in different angles capturing various sceneries brought together without conflicting with each other (Lisboa, 2011 pp. 245). War choppers are visible in the head of the captain as he imagines that he is in the jungle, yet he is in the hotel.
Additionally, Apocalypse has incorporated style, which heightens its audiences’ gluing aspect or interest (Keller, 2009). The style’s presentation of heroism and adventure is via captain Benjamin actions. For instance, this is evident especially via his emotions where he feels it is his responsibility to save fellow soldiers from the hands of Vietnam soldiers. Consequently, ensuring well flowing of the scenes especially the way he plans the saving missions where the viewer is capable of understanding the film’s theme (Moreau, 2011, pp. 250).
The film has controlled and connected numerous aspects making it extremely intriguing. There are many cameras used to capture the actions in the film apocalypse (Mitchell, 2001, pp. 234). This has allowed the viewer to have a better look and does not miss any action. The viewer can see all that is happening in the film besides cameras capturing other parts not intended to be in the film due to their framing effects that characterize the entire film, hence making it authentic to the viewers (Moreau, 2011). Cameras used in the film are remarkably clear, which makes pictures appear apparent besides their strategic placement to capture diverse actions in the film. This makes the pictures to be well visible because the cameras are not placed too far or too near when capturing the actions (Wheeler, 2005, pp. 82). The capturing of the film’s scenes is in the places well connected to the actions in the film, hence making it more authentic and fascinating to the viewer.
Sound aspects used in the film connect to the main actions. For illustration, sounds heard from the war chopper blades and flames of war are clearly visible. The film apocalypse has used the style of sound perfectly to make it more absorbing owing to its sound intensity variance depending on the kind of actions taking place (Dirks, 2012). In a situation where there is confrontation, the sound becomes intense, but in calm incidences, it is low. For instance, this is evident especially when a helicopter is approaching the intense sound increases mainly brought by whop-whop. Change of sound intensity in diverse situations makes the film ensure its flow, thus becoming more captivating. Besides, the film’s sound normally accompanies the film’s diverse actions, hence making it more gluing (Dirks, 2012). Additionally, diverse sound effects accompany the main characters while in the mission where tone and rhythm goes well with actions. For illustration, the use of a lance or arrows when the captain stealthily makes any pursuit where while moving keeps on varying with actions, which he makes.
The movie apocalypse has utilized the aspect of field and focus. Captain Willard and his soldiers are moving at different parts of the jungle. They are spotted at coastal mouth of the Nung River. Soldiers use this place for surfing to relax their minds from the impacts of the war. Focusing on the field is a significant aspect in movie making. This gives the viewer an idea regarding prior expectations of a particular scene. Apocalypse movie connects the field with the action-taking place thus making it be relevant to the viewers (Keller, 2009). Its focus also is on war impacts to the soldiers. Most of the soldiers are under the influence of drugs to deal with traumatic events of the war (Mascelli, 1965, pp.65). For instance, in the movie apocalypse, Lance and Chef are continually under the influence of drugs making them become withdrawn.
The movie apocalypse has efficiently used aspect ratio of letterboxing (LoBrutto, 2009). This preserves the aspect ratio of apocalypse movie on a narrower screen, hence assuming the right scale until it fits the width of the screen. In the movie apocalypse, the viewer can see how unseen enemies fire upon the boat (Viera, 1993). Through scaling the river and boat fit well on the screen to give the viewer a chance of catching all the action.
The movie apocalypse has used filters effectively in their cameras to avoid camera polarization. This is because light coming from river Nunga can have polarity effect on the cameras thus distorting the images. Camera crew in the movie apocalypse has used filters to block light coming from the waters of the river reaching the camera (Lamb, 2012, pp. 93). This ensures that the viewer has a clear view of the action-taking place. A spear pierces the chief while they are on the boat, and this is clearly visible despite light coming from the river to the camera. Dead bodies dot the banks of the river, which are clearly visible despite the light coming from the sky that can distort images.
Apocalypse film’s editing and its high quality of the pictures despite making the move more enthralling, it presents the utter worse side of war and its effects on humanity. This is contrary to its intention about anti-war message especially on the ordinary people who may not be aware of political on goings (Lamb, 2012). Kilgore during one of the film’s scenes, he shamelessly commands termination of the tree line with napalm besides other occasions where there is involvement of humanity. In addition, the film’s opening comprises of electrifying seven-minute’s frightening montage. This is the foreshadowing of what will constitute the entire movie, but it brings a staggering effect, which is confusing to the viewers. This is especially among those who do not have film-analyzing skills, where they will end up understanding the unfolding of events when it is quarter way to its mid. The film’s ending seems it writer rushed, where the war ends abruptly with the main character dropping the lance down and reconciling with the villagers (Keller, 2009). Hence, the end becoming more of fake than the entire previous cast, where the writer had intertwined the unfolding events effectively.
Apocalypse is a film that features Vietnamese at war. The film has controlled and connected various styles making it extremely intriguing. Sounding techniques used in the film connect to the main actions. The film Apocalypse has linked the acting process with various styles perfectly, which makes it fascinating for the viewer to watch. The film has tilted the cameras in different angles capturing various sceneries brought together without conflicting with each other. There is change of sound intensity depending on the action-taking place. In a situation where there is confrontation, the sound becomes intense but in situations where there is calmness, intensity is low. The capturing of the film’s scenes is in the places well connected to the actions in the film, hence making it more authentic and fascinating to the viewer. This is due to the editing, which has served in ensuring the intriguing factor of the movies besides interconnection of events that unfold in each scene. It is irrefutable editing aspect in each film plays a vital role, hence ensuring that it has maintained its gluing effect, which is evident in this movie.
Dirks, T., 2012. Apocalypse now. Retrieved on September 15 2012 from, <http://www.filmsite.org/apoc.html>
Galloway, P., (1996). Heart of darkness and Apocalypse now, a comparative analysis of novella and film, retrieved on September 2012 from,<http://www.historyteacher.net/HistoryThroughFilm/FilmReadings/HeartOfDarknessA dApocalypseNow.pdf>
Keller, P., 2009. Landscape and cinematography, Cultural Geographies, 16, 3, pp. 409-414, viewed Marco, M., 2005. Field guide to the apocalypse: Movie survival skills for the end of the world. New York: Simon and Schuster
Lamb, B. 2012, 'Shoot to Thrill: The Camera in Action', Screen Education, 65, pp. 90-95, viewed 19 September 2012. <https://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=121&sid=ed78e71e-b618-4162-b9a7-a22af71f2129%40sessionmgr111>
MASCELLI, J. V., 1965. The five C is of cinematography. United States of America: Silman-James Press
Mitchell, C. P., 2001. A guide to apocalyptic cinema. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Moreau, A., 2011. Applying Photo Principles to Event Cinematography, Eventdv, 24, 5, p. 34, viewed 19 September 2012. <http://www.eventdv.net/Articles/News/Feature/Applying-Photo-Principles-to-Event-Cinematography-75799.htm>
Viera, D., 1993. Lighting For Film and Electronic Cinematography. Wadsworth, USA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Vineyard, J., 2000. Setting Up Your Shots. United States of America: Michael Wiese Publications.
Wheeler, P., 2005. Practical Cinematography. Great Britain: Focal Press.
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“Before Sunset” is a romantic drama film that impacts on the lives of the audience in terms of the theme that it portrays. The film addresses a range of issues that conform to the normal living in the social environment in which human beings live. It is known that human beings are social animals, and thus the platform on which this film was created. The film portrays various elements of design, which makes it favorable among the audience. The director considered using the most appropriate design elements while producing the movie. By watching the film, it is easier to discover the ubiquitous elements of design such as lighting, characters, costumes, sound, visual elements, and theme. The perfect lighting complements all other elements of design such as the behavior of characters, their image, sound, and their roles within the given theme. This paper discusses the different elements of movie design that are evident in the film.
The first and more significant design element in any movie is the theme. All movie producers must have preliminary knowledge of the theme that the characters will adhere to while performing their roles. The theme of love is indisputable in Before Sunset. The theme of love is demonstrated by Celine and Jesse. Initially, Jesse met Celine in Vienna before he returned to America. Nine years later, they are reunited in Paris (IMDb, imbd.com). Between the first and the second meeting, Jesse writes a novel describing their first encounter. Love makes the movie lively and thus adding more points to the movie to increase its rating. The theme of love is ubiquitous among the current generations and thus the director knew the essence of relying on it. Love is all over the place as far as the competent actors and their perfect script roles are concerned.
The second element of movie design entails its characters. All movies become lively depending on the type of characters that a director chooses to personalize his or her script. This movie portrays the theme of love in the society. The characters play their roles of making the theme stand out and livelier to the audience. They are also dramatic because the movie falls under romance drama genre. Jesse and Celine are the main characters that make the movie a success. The two characters show what real love is to the audience. The two actors single-handedly play their roles as indicated in the script. Their character roles are amazing, although different from their normal characters.
The third element of design that is visible in the movie is lighting. Lighting should be perfect to enhance the visual element of a movie. Lighting has the propensity of changing the audience’s moods. Lighting also impacts the tone of a movie. This movie is romantic and thus the necessity of using lighter, bright, and attractive colors in different settings. For instance, lighting differs in different settings including the city, inside a café, inside a car, and in a garden (IMDb, imbd.com). It is expected to be darker in the car and brighter in the city. The lighting in the different settings also impacts on the conversation between Jesse and Celine. They have limited time to talk about their love encounters. Lighter scenes are associated with deep romantic conversations while darker scenes are linked to less romantic escapades.
Visual element of film product is the fourth design that is part and parcel of the film. The director was keen to keep the film more commendable by applying intense visuals elements in the movie. The picture quality of the film is very good. Images are clear and of high quality. In this case, the different scenes including the city, café, and garden are clearly shown. Many people prefer watching clear films. This is because visual clarity or image quality of a movie influences the propensity of an individual to watch it. There is no doubt Before Sunset portrays some of the best visual elements that a movie can possess. The brighter images of the surrounding, the busy city life, and attractive gardens contribute to the visual elements of the movie that coincides with the romantic escapades between the two characters.
Costumes are part of the design elements of a film. Costumes determine the character of an individual. They also conform to the theme of interest that the movie portrays. In this movie, the characters wear different clothes to match their romantic sessions and physical settings. There is a scene in the garden where Jesse is in full black suit while Celine is in a casual black dress. The match color of their clothes adds flavor to the objectives of the movie at that specific scene. It is intuitive to affirm that the black clothes are sensible because the characters are in an external setting where there is too much light. In dark places, the uniformity of costumes, lighting, and visual elements is necessary to come up with a perfect scene that is appealing to the viewer. I n this film, costumes define the two characters differently depending on their romantic love escapades and venues.
Sound is the last film design element to be analyzed in relation to this film. Sound is usually in form of music, theme songs, or sound tracks that match specific scenes. Since this is a romantic film, the background sounds are romantic songs that promote the theme of love. In this film, the background sounds are moderated and thus played in low volumes to avoid interfering with the conversations between the two characters. Additionally, the producer did a great job with regards to environmental sounds within the different scenes with which the characters interacted. Their voices are audible and thus adding value to the film’s audio clarity. This film is one of the best in terms of sound clarity. The viewer misses nothing in relation to the dialogue between the two characters. The movie receives a round of applause because for its stunning sound effects that keeps the viewer in a romantic mood.
Conclusively, movie analysis focuses on different elements. One of the elements of analysis is film design during production. The main artifacts of film design that are susceptible to analysis include sound effects, visual elements, theme, characters, and costumes. Before Sunset possesses the above design element s, which make it a full film. To win the interest of the audience, the director maximized on the design elements. Maximum application of high quality design elements added value to the film. The elements work together to produce a movie that is worth watching. The audience prefers watching a film that is of good quality. Having watched the film, I recommend it to anyone else because it is exciting, educating, and above all, high quality.
IMDb. Before Sunset (2004) Synopsis. Accessed February 6, 2014 at
'Raise the Titanic' is a classic adventure film by directed by Jerry Jameson and written by Eric Hughes which replicates the sinking of the once great Titanic ship. The tagline adopted by the film was "Once they said God himself couldn't sink her. Then they said no man on earth could reach her. Now—you will be there when we... RAISE THE TITANIC"("Raise the Titanic - Box Office Data). Despite the heavy budget line, the film did not do well in the film industry substantially failing to reach its projected revenue. Despite the numerous flops attributed with the film, the film is recognized as being the mentor of subsequent titanic film while at the same time inspiring major films exhibiting similar plot.
'Raise the Titanic' was produced a few years earlier before the real Titanic was discovered in the Northern Atlantic. The plot is based on a rare ore that was being transported by the ship and which was both at the center on interest between the Russian and the American army and the eventual owner of the ore would have the upper hand in nuclear defense systems. The only way to get to the ore was to bring the ship to the surface. The Americans were the first to get to the ship and ended up bringing the ship to the surface after a tedious process of repairing the holes on the hull and forcing the ship back to the surface. However, the ship is hulled to New York by the Americans only for them to discover that there was no ore on the ship. What followed was a long military standoff that was just about to escalate to a full war.
'Titanic' on the other hand is an epic romance and disaster film that was written and directed by James Cameron who is considered to be one of the most successful producers of all times. Cameron admits that the inspiration behind the production of this film is as a result of his love for shipwrecks. Cameron tried to incorporate a romantic theme in the film in realization that a love story interspersed with the human loss would be essential in conveying an emotional message with regards to the Titanic disaster. During its production, Titanic is considered to be one of the most expensive films of its time. This film proved to be of significant success going by the fact that it equaled a record fourteen academy awards as well as more than eleven nominations to the Oscars.
James Cameron admits that his love for shipwrecks is what motivated him to write and direct the Titanic. In a general context, Cameron said that he wanted to honor the people who perished in the Titanic disaster which is why he spent more than six months researching on the people who actually died in the disaster. According to Cameron, The sinking of the Titanic was almost an actual great novel happening and he went ahead and took the liberty to give audiences the experience of living the history. Cameron admits that the Titanic is not actually a disaster movie but rather it is a love story with a fastidious overlay of real history. The end of the film raises even more questions as to whether the elderly rose was in a conscious dream or had died in her sleep.
The film 'Raise the Titanic' was produced at a time that most countries were in war. This is derived form the basic plot of the film depicting ore as the centre of conflict between the Russian and the American military in an attempt for the two countries to gain competitive advantage in nuclear systems. The society at the time can be described as a laid back society that treasured cultural diversity and practices. This can practically be seen in the film setting derived form the music in the background during the film. The absence of a romantic theme in this film clearly depicts that the social aspect was not so much applicable during the time and that war was somehow the centre of interest in the society. However, Cameron criticized this film as well as other Titanic films stating that the aspect of showing the ship plunging into the sea was devoid of creativity and imagination. This indicates that film technology was not so much advanced at the time of the production of the film 'Raise the Titanic'.
The 'Titanic' movie displays a culture that is diverse in terms of interaction and social ties. This can be seen through the various characters in the movie and the relationships that emerge in the course of the voyage. The society at this time is displayed as a vibrant society reeling form the effects of the war and characterized by people trying to build their lives on the aftermath. This film can be said to achieve the objective of giving the audience the experience of living through history in the sense that previous Titanic films had failed in achieving the stated objective. The film industry seems to have grown significantly during the production of the Titanic going by the fact that the film has a very clear picture and well structured plot that is all encompassing. The director also seems to have put a lot in the production of the movie which explains the success of the film as compared to Raising the Titanic. With both of these great films involving shipwrecks, the Titanic movie and its success shows just how much the film industry was becoming more and more appreciated in the society. This might be the reason why Raising the Titanic was not so successful itself.
Fowler, Rebecca (31 August 1996), "'It would be cheaper to lower the Atlantic'", The Independent (London), retrieved 2009-05-11
Marsh Ed W.; Kirkland, Douglas. James Cameron's Titanic, London: Boxtree. (1998). Print
"Raise the Titanic - Box Office Data". The Numbers. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
Sandler, Kevin S.; Studlar, Gaylyn. Titanic: Anatomy of a Blockbuster. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press. (1999). Print
Exploitation film may be technically defined as cheaply made photographs that are distributed by road showmen or by any local independents also known as state’s-righter. The exploitation pictures had a characteristic of having between 15 to 20 pictures and they were being moved from place to place. Another thing that happened is that they leased the theatre, and could do whatever they wanted provided the exhibitor had been paid and they had their own cashier manning the operations of the theatre (Schaefer, 1999: 3).
The above definition of exploitation film indicates that for quite a long time, exploitation film was a broad term which included movies which were engineered to appeal to kids. It also went further to include those that were even more disrepute. The broad term showed the extent to which the historical way of looking at things had been changed over time to embrace a wide range of practices. Films that heavily talked about forbidden topics that came from the mainstream industry sometimes were being referred to as blues or sometimes Main street movies. These terms were used because they used to refer to the low end theatres which frequently booked them. Even though exploitation film most used in conversations, it was also being used in the print to mean picture as early as 1933 (Clover, 1992:138)
Exploitation film can also be described as one which focuses more on morbid elements. Such elements always excite or fascinate people (Nourmand, 2006:67). A good example would be a movie which focuses more on the ways of committing crime than on the steps that should be taken to combat such crimes. Another instance would be a film that is too violent for no apparent reason. A film which contains a lot of sexual scenes would also qualify to be referred to an exploitation film.
Exploitation film was also a term used during the period of 1970 to mean movies that were cheaply made, from materials which were highly of low quality. These films were made by poorly developed firms. Very few well known artists associated themselves with this kind of movies because they feared such movies would injure their reputation. They used shoddy standings which relied heavily on stock footage and had quite a number of continuity mistakes. This is because they only used simple cameras with basic editing while the sound system recording systems were very poor. The budget that sometimes was allocated to such movies was also too small to accommodate its production (Imanjaya, 2009:147)
Exploitation film also meant the films that were release at any time of the year. The films that were considered non-exploitative had a specific duration or time spam that passed before they were released. The exploitation films are described as those which could be produced for ten, twenty or many more years. These films lacked familiar artists and hence they lacked general public appeal. Going to watch the exploitative films was sometimes not a better thing to do. This is because there were several activities which occurred after the show of the film. There were quite a number of odd things like selling pamphlets, slide presentations or even lectures. Sometimes there were the uniformed nurses who were always ready to attend to the viewers who had problems watching the shocking sights. Gender issue as well as race issues also dominated such kind of films. Several scenes were meant for adults only (Anne, 1997:6)
The exploitation films were quite a number. The makers of these films had specific individuals on mind and had the message which they intended to reach a particular audience. Some the films which had been considered as been exploitative include Cannibal Holocaust, Hard Candy, Reefer Madness, Child Bride and many more. This discussion however focuses on Bound and Gagged and the Hard Candy.
Bound and Gagged is a film about a little kid who is in distress. She is captured by the villain and restrained in an old building. To prevent her from making noise, she is gagged so that the hero cannot come to her rescue. In the olden days, such scenes would incorporate some kind of death trap. The main reason of using the death trap was to create suspense in the movie, a factor which makes the viewer to continue watching (Kipnis, 1996:13). The victim’s mobile phone is taken away from her and when anybody calls, it’s the villain who receives and gives demands that ought to be met within a particular time span. In this film, the villain tells the captured person that they now have them. Such words are mainly used to make angry the captured and and so they always show a picture of being defiant.
This may also be done for the purpose of adding humor into the blockbuster movies. This is done in a situation where the captured person has an annoying attitude. The group decides to tie him or her up as a way of getting rid of him or her. The individual may also be gagged if need be. At some point, the tying up of an individual may be as a result of a mishap. Such incidences also add humor into the exploitative film.
When such scenes are included in a drama with scenes that talks about death, there will always be very dark lighting sessions with very few. Mostly such movies tend to have quite a number of light-hearted expeditions which try to incorporate horrific sessions. In most cases, the humorous part is seen when the hero tries to escape. When exploitation film is played for drama purposes, the emphasis is always on how terrible the person who had been captured feels. A lot of focus is always put on the facial expressions and very little is given on the bonds.
Another exploitation film is the Hard Candy, which features Patrick Wilson and Ellen Page. Ellen acts as the photographer here. The two meet in a restaurant after they had at first chatted on a social platform. They agree to have fun at Jeff’s place. Jeff drinks and loses his consciousness and when he comes back to normal, he finds himself tied up and he is being interrogated by a teen girl. This is followed by psychological torture sessions, several arguments (Kipnis, 1996:13).
The film is made lively because of its controversial nature and it’s the way its characters are hard to categorize. This film also tries to show how the blockbuster movies which had an audience whose characteristic are hard to determine.
“Bold! Daring! Shocking! True!” a history of exploitation films, 1919-1959.Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Dissertation Services, 1997. Print.
Clover, Carol J. Men, Women and Chain Saw: gender in the modern horror film. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992. Print.
Erick, Schaefer. A History of Exploitation Films. Duke: Duke University Press, 1999. Print.
Imanjaya, Ekky. The Other Side of Indonesia: New Order’s Indonesian Exploitation; Cinema as Cult Films. USA: Monash University, 2009: (18)143-143-159. Print.
Kipnis, Laura. Bound and gagged: pornography and the politics of fantasy in America. New York: Grove Press, 1966. Print.
Lescroart, John T..Hard Evidence. New York: D.I. Fine, 1993. Print.
Nourmand, Tony. Film posters: exploitation. Koln: Evergreen/Taschen, 2006. Print.
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