Term Paper Samples
This individual reflection report is based on the discussions which we had in our group. Our group was headed by Eugene. As coordinator and implementer of the group, this repot is presented. This role was in accordance to the Belbin team role self-perception inventory (BTRSPI) which was structured to measure the traits which people display when working in a team. The individual traits assist in designing the role which a person is awarded in the group. Other group members were given different roles depending on the characteristics they displayed. Proper role allocation was essential in the effective achievement of the set group objectives (Belbin 2013).
As the group coordinator and implementer, one had a task of looking at organizational development and its relations with the human resource department in an organization. Basically organizational development can be defined as a deliberate effort which has been planned and managed by top executives to promote organizational performance in the implementation of organizational activities through application of behavior science knowledge. It is clear from this definition that organization development mainly emphasizes on organizational performance which can only be attained through employee motivation (Richard 1969).
There is a close connection which is evident between organization development and human resource department. They both focus on the important people processes. For organizational performance to be attained human resources require an effective management. The top executive has to ensure that their demands are met appropriately. However, it is worthy looking at the distinction that exists between the two fields. Human resource mainly focuses on short-term processes such as employee performance reviews, remuneration and recruitment. Organizational development on the other hand aims at long-term people processes such as organizational mission, training and management (Terrence 2010). Human resource supplements organizational development processes (Kandula 2006).
Common goal and ground rules for team
To promote unity of effort, our team formulated common goals and ground rules for the team members. They were binding to all members, and they were under duty to observe them. Ground rules were meant to attain group objectives for example completing the assignment on time. Every group member had to understand the group mission for them to comply by the group rules. While structuring our team goals, we considered the main aspects of team goals. First there was the basic requirement of a team. The physical presence of presence of the team members was necessary. Our group was comprised of five members, and they all actively participated in the goal formulation process. Secondly, the success of our group in accomplishing the assignment was dependent on goals (David 2014).
Hence, our goals were more directed on the side of academics because we were handling an assignment together. Thirdly, the aspect of individual motivation was evident in our goals. The goals clearly depicted the individual inspiration for academic success which was in all the members. Members' motivation was examined by their willingness to contribute in the goal formulation process. They had believed that they would accomplish team goals. Finally the feature of clarity in goal setting was properly followed. The ground rules were clear and consistent with the team goals. Group members were able to clearly tell what we're looking for and how we were bound to attain it. The group was focused, and had a significant level of Cohesiveness. I would like to look at the main ground rules which were important in the group discussion. First we had the rule concerning common goals (David 2014).
Normally, common goals give group members a common sense of direction. For example, in our group each member was committed towards handling of the group assignment that would otherwise not have been completed by one member. Secondly the members were to maintain high levels of punctuality when attending group meetings and submitting their research work. Assignments are supposed to be finished within one week before the submission date. Maintaining a conducive environment for the group meetings was another matter that the rules checked on. Everyone had to ensure that the mobile phones were switched off during group meetings to avoid disruptions. Fourth, the group rules provided for the freedom of expression. Individuals feel a sense of belonging when their views are accepted in a group. Members of our group for example have proposed that we maintain the same groups while handling other assignments. This is a good idea though we are still waiting for official communication. Extending a helping hand is another principle successfully structured in the team. Whenever one member is in need, the others are willing to help (David 2014).
Team building is management of individuals so that they can reach the set objectives of the group. The process of team building is continuous, and this helps the teams to maintain their level of togetherness. For a team to exhibit high performance level, the team members have to share a common goal, trust, respect and supportive values. Team builders have a role to guide their teams towards attainment of high performance levels. This is because organizational development is directly related to teamwork. That is to mean poor team performance will be depicted in organizational performance (California 2014).
In the current environmental setting, the composition of teams is continually changing, and there is more urge to develop competitive skills in members so that their presence in the team can be effective. In summary the main stage involved in team building are: setting clear goals. This will involve communicating the objectives of the team in a clear manner. Secondly, the team builder will be needed to establish the challenges to attaining group performance and finally dealing with those challenges appropriately for the common goals to be attained. The solutions to challenges could be attained through forums such as discussions and performance evaluation (Steve 2014).
Advantages of teamwork
Teamwork promotes synergy whereby individuals with varied talents are integrated together in a group. Much more is attained when employees work together as a group. They inspire each other, and this boosts individual's intrinsic motivation. The individuals are willing to offer more. Improve motivation will inspire organizational development through the improved performance. Secondly, we noted that teamwork gives the members a good opportunity of learning from one another. Their skills and personal performance at the workplace is improved by their participation in teamwork. Group and teams formation should thus be emphasized in organizations (Medsker 1997).
Disadvantages of teamwork
According to the team building process we analyzed, we realized that the process of building stable and performing teams is time consuming. Normally team formation needs coordination, and it takes time to make decisions. Most organizations are not willing to concentrate their effort to such processes. Secondly, the possibility of conflicts arising in a group is very high especially when members fail to agree on a topic. Application of conflict resolution methods brings unnecessary expenses (Medsker 1997).
Theories we applied when building our team.
Belbin roles theory: we successfully applied Belbin roles in building our team. These roles majorly emphasize on individuals using their abilities for the benefit of the team. This enhances in the team performance because group members give their best to the team. He identified nine team roles which are classified under: intellectual roles, people oriented roles and action oriented roles. Intellectual roles: planter, monitor and specialist. Action oriented role: implementer, shaper and finisher. People skills oriented role: coordinator, team-worker and investigator. We appropriately applied these roles in our teambuilding whereby every member was allocated team roles.
Advantages and disadvantages of Belbin role theory:
Disadvantages: first, it is interesting to emphasize that this theory is specifically designed for teams. Information obtained can only be useful in cultural change, individual development and team development. Secondly, the theory is mainly concerned with behavior. It cares less on personality. When making decisions in an organization, information obtained from Belbin theory needs to be supplemented (David 2014). Advantages: the theory gives team members an opportunity to share information and further unites the team. These are major aspects that attracts inspires team members and also attracts individuals to join the team (Belbin 2013). Tuchman four stages: this team building model explains the different changes that happen when a team develops from formation stage to the later stages. In our discussion we noted that as the development proceeds to later stages, more decision are made, and the time required making such agreements decreases. The stages can be explained as follows:
Formation stage: the members of the group highly depend on the leader, there is little agreement and the duties of members lack clarity. Storming stage: the roles of group members are progressively determined but still there is uncertainty. Decisions are made at a slow rate. Team members are required to be focused to avoid distractions. Norming stage: the level of agreement is high, and the members cooperate with the leader. The level of commitment is high and it is common to have social activities. Performing stage: every member is aware of his roles. They have a common vision and the level of unity is high. Any disagreements arising are solved in a positive manner. The team leader is able to comfortably delegate tasks. The level of intrinsic motivation on members is high (Alan 2013).
Advantages: this model provides clearly detailed explanation of the stages which teams undergo and whenever one is planning to form a team he can use the model as a point of reference. Disadvantages: this method was specifically designed for small groups. It cannot be used to predict stages for larger groups. Secondly, it is difficult to determine when the team has proceeded to the next stage because we are dealing with human beings. A change in human traits is hard to determine (Quantum 2014).
Team development process: in our team building we applied team development process whereby we evaluated the development of our team within a period of one and half years. During this process we used questionnaire to measure the development of the team. The level of productivity was high during this period and this promoted innovation in the team (Quantum 2014). Advantages: a closely monitored team development process improves the ability of the team achieve better performances because the process promotes innovation which is essential in organizational development. Secondly, the acts of team members are closely monitored to check on their accountability for team performance. Disadvantage: the level of rigidity of this method is very high in such a manner that the individuals' performance should be monitored closely. Failure to implement this monitoring brings poor performance (Quantum 2014).
While working has a team we encountered various challenges. Most of them were unexpected but others we expected their presence. As highlighted above in Tuchman's team development stages, there is reduced member integration in our stage during the first meetings. Members were not very cooperative and we entirely depended on our leader to offer guidance and carry out the tasks. Other members were confused because their role in the team was not clearly. This made me feel de-motivated during this period due to the failed expectations. However, we eventually solved the issue and our activities proceeded smoothly (Quantum 2014).
There were also challenges when collecting information on organizational development from the field especially on measuring the contribution of organizational development. This is because organizational development has some aspects of behavioral science. As a result we could get varied results. We had to technically balance the results (Quantum 2014).
Organizational development techniques applied We mainly applied the organizational development technique of management by objectives (MBO). We worked together with our team leader, Eugene to attain our objectives for the study. Whenever any member faced a challenge, we all participated to find a solution. Survey feedback technique was also applied in the part of team development process to acquire the required data. The information obtained was important in the planning process. Challenges encountered in the team were also analyzed (Harshmandavia 2012).
Conclusively, developing teams face many challenges mostly in their early stages. There is a great need to put any team building process under the supervision of a professional human resource practitioner so the teams formed can reach the maturity stage. This will help to reduce team break-ups while in the initial stages.
Allan, C., 2013, Tuchman stages, Retrieved from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Techniques-Of-Organizational-Development-Used-To-1299465.htm
Belbin, H., 2013, A Comprehensive Review of Belbin Team Roles. Retrieved from www.belbin.com
David, R., 2014, Goals, Retrieved from http://www.odportal.com/teams/effective/chapter5.htm
Kandula, S., 2006), Human Resource Management and Organization Development Practitioner Readings, ICFAI Books, New York.
Medsker, G.J. and Campion, M.A., 1997, Job and Team Design, in Salendy, G., Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics,
Quantum Learning, 2014, Team Development Process, Retrieved from http://www.quantumlearn.com/team-building/team-development-process/
Richard, B., 1969, Organization Development: Strategies and Models
Steve, M., 2014, Team Building, Retrieved from http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/tt/h-articl/tb-basic.htm
Terrence, S., 2010, HR and OD- What Does the Future Hold. Retrieved from http://learningvoyager.blogspot.com/2010/10/hr-and-od-what-does-future-hold.html
University of California, 2014, Team Building, California university, California university press.
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Individuals have their own different definitions of what ethics entails. However, one thing that all these definitions have in common is that, ethics deals with knowing what is right or wrong. Ethics can be defined as the body of cognition that is responsible for the study of worldwide rationales that determine right from wrong. Many people are inclined to thinking that ethics revolves around their feelings; what they feel is right or wrong. However, this is not the case. Individuals have their own perception regarding particular scenarios or subject. As a result, one’s feelings may deviate from what is ethical. The main purpose of ethical conduct is to govern and guide one’s behavior. Ethical conduct increases the probability that an individual will behave accordingly in certain ways. This is achieved by partly focusing on the actions of individual characters and penalties for infringement. Ethical conduct encourages organization. Without ethical conduct people would do things in their own way based on their own moral choices, which may not be right. (Preston, 2007)
Possessing the knowledge on ethics is not enough. It is very significant for individual to evaluate their own conduct and that of other people. Evaluation of conduct involves the critical judgment of individual behavior. It serves as a gauge for progress; success and failures. Evaluation of one’s conduct can be based on two categories: formative and summative. The formative category identifies what an individual expects to achieve in a particular endeavor. The summative category investigates what has been achieved at the culmination of the program. These two categories assist in determining any deviation in ethical conduct which may result in failure of achieving the intended purpose. (Preston, 2007)
Ethics is a body of knowledge applied by different professions. Teachers, doctors, students, researchers, scientist, politicians among other individual must possess and apply the knowledge of ethics. There has been continuous emphasizes on ethics in leadership. Leadership is a broad subject. It not only pertains to political leadership, but also organizational leadership. An ethical leader can be defined as the demonstration of prescriptive appropriate conduct through individual actions and social relationships, and the advocacy of such conduct to acolytes. The current President of USA, Barack Obama is good example of a reputable ethical leader. Elected to be the 44th President of the United States, Barack Obama was sworn into power on January 20, 2009. He is a charismatic and transformational leader who strictly follows ethics when dealing with other people. He is a man who has earned the respect of many individuals for his action of integrity and impartiality. Owing to his reputable character and behavior, the economy and country in general, has gradually thrived. (Finser, 2003)
Barack Obama is an autonomous minded individual possessing charismatic speaking skills. He is bent on consensus building and will not, for any reasons whatsoever compromise his values for the sake of profit or any other vested interest. Apart from possessing all these qualities and being a good leader, he is also a talented, introverted writer. He is the writer of two bestselling books. His leadership qualities and values have been strongly supplemented by his expertise as a civil rights attorney and a Constitutional Law professor, and by Christianity. Prior to his position as the President, he served 7 years as Illinois State Senator. Barack Obama also worked as community organizer.
Ethics refers to the well established touchstone or reference on what is right or wrong. These standards determine what individuals ought to do. It also refers to the study and growth of an individual’s ethical standards. One’s feelings, laws, and social norms may vary from what is ethical. As a result it is necessary and mandatory to regularly analyze one’s standards to ascertain that they are resolved and well established. In order for an individual to be regarded as ethical, it takes much more effort than just studying ethics. One has to apply the knowledge acquired. The study of ethics is very significant. This is so because, almost every profession, organization and entity applies ethics in achieving set objectives. Societies have their own definition on what is right or wrong. Equipping oneself with the knowledge of ethics serves as a stepping stone towards better relation with individuals. (Preston, 2007)
Ethics serves as a road map on how individuals should conduct themselves. For example ethics imposes obligations that refrain individuals from indulging in vices. Currently, there are many vices in our society today. For instance rape, fraud, theft, slander, murders are just a few of the many vices some individuals engage in. Some individuals will engage in such vices since they have inadequate or no information regarding what is ethical. Others possess the knowledge on ethics but for various reasons, they choose to be ignorant of what they already know. The study of ethics is very significant in an individual’s lifetime. Although ethical knowledge may be learnt from our seniors, the study of ethics gives individual detailed information on what is right or wrong in the society. ( Millar & Poole, 2003)
Millar, C., & Poole, E. (2011). Ethical Leadership: Global Challenges and Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Preston, N. (2007). Understanding Ethics. Australia: Federation Press.
Finser, T. (2003). In Search of Ethical Leadership: If not now, when? United States: SteinerBooks
This practice of taking money away from the rich and giving it to the poor might reduce efficiency because it makes some individuals worse off to make others better off. These programs are a form of disincentives for those individuals who have to contribute as well as those who work. Because of distinctiveness on the side of those who work and contribute, the overall output of the society decreases. Moreover, the introduction of taxes into the marketplace leads to a reduction in the economic efficiency because taxes cause a deadweight loss. In addition, prices for economic goods in a competitive market always adjust to ensure that all the transactions that benefit both buyers and sellers occur. When this balance is distorted, it leads to fewer transactions and reduced welfare. All these contribute to reduced efficiency in both the market and society.
In the field of economics, the term opportunity cost is used to refer to the value of the next valued alternative use of a given resource. This implies the cost of using a certain resource is already the value the next best option that an individual gives up in favour of the chosen option between equally exclusive economic uses. For instance, the opportunity cost of going to the movie would be losing 10 points of my grade. This means that spending money (AED 35) and time in the movie, I cannot be able to spend that time (3 hours) studying economics. Thus, my opportunity cost of choosing to watch the movie would be the money spend (AED 35) plus the points I lose (10 points) for not studying economics. The opportunity cost of studying economics losing AED 35 and time spent watching the movie.
Using the formula, opportunity cost= cost of the selected alternative-cost of the next best option. Leila’s opportunity cost would be AED 120,000- AED 74,000 = -AED 46,000.
- a)It will produce at point E (160) bushels of corn and produce zero (0) cars.
- b)Combination B and C
- c)The opportunity cost of moving from D to E is 3 cars. The country has to forgo 3 cars in order to produce 20 extra bushels of corn.
- d)Production at point C or F would mean that the country is underutilizing its resources. The country is not producing enough cars or corn given the potential of its resources.
Nominal GDP = ($2.5*40 +$5*20) = $200
Real GDP= ($2.5*40 +$5*20) = $200
GDP deflator = 100%
Inflation rate = (0%-100%) = -100%
Nominal GDP = ($3*50 +$6*25) = $300
Real GDP = ($2.5*50 +5*25) =$ 250
GDP deflator = ($300/200)*100% =150%
Inflation rate = (150%-100%) = 50%
Nominal GDP = ($4*40 +$6*30) = $340
Real GDP = ($2.5*40 + $5*30) = $250
GDP deflator = ($340/$200)*100% =170%
Inflation rate = (170%-150%) = 20%
GDP is all the products produced within the country’s borders and GNP comprises of the products produced by firms and companies owned by a country’s citizens. The parts of the restaurant production included in UAE are salaries of expats, food and fresh produced by UAE nationals, and all the utilities to UAE companies. The GNP of UAE will not include the salaries paid to the expats.
Cost of basket = (6*$3.25 +2*$75) = $169.5
CPI = ($169/$169)*100% = 100%
Inflation rate = -100%
Cost of basket = (6*$3.75 +2*$82) = $186.5
CPI = ($186.5/$169.5)* 100% = 11.003%
Inflation rate = (11.00%-100%) = -89%
Cost of basket = (6*$4.50 +2*$96) = $219
CPI = ($219/$169.5)* 100% = 129.204.
Inflation rate= 129.204%-11.00%) = 118.204%
The spongy bone is located on the inner part while the compact bone is located on the inner part. The spongy bone that is concentrated on the edges of the bone has large cavities appearing in wide mesh filled with red marrow. Compact bone appears to have very small cavities with very narrow mesh congaing pale yellow marrow.
Spongy bone is pink in color
The major difference is that, cartilage is white while bone is cream
Cartilage felt soft compared to bone, which was hard
Periosteum is thin and appears to be transparent while endosteum is thick and appears to be red in color.
Bone marrow is red
Articular cartilage is one found between joints
The color of tendons is white
They are made of strong elastic fibers
The raw bone appears to be soft and cream while the baked one appears cracked and white
The bone bends slightly as I apply pressure
It does not bend but cracks as pressure is applied
Collagen substances are responsible for bone flexibility.
The vinegar soaked bone
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Operations and supply management is a crucial aspect of organizational performance. This paper highlights the different characteristics of goods and services and how they affect production and operations management. Furthermore, the distinction between production and capacity has been described. Finally there is a reflection on the relevance of inventory management in both the goods and services firms.
Operations and supply management
Goods and services are produced by organizations with the consumers in mind. Consumers have expectations with regard to goods and services that are available in the market. In the course of addressing consumer expectations, firms have to make their operations and supply chains effective. This is achieved through the use of different strategies that aim at satisfying the needs of consumers.
Goods and services have differing characteristics that are significant in understanding operation management. Goods are tangible such that they can be seen physically by the consumers. For instance consumers are able to see mobile phones or cakes as goods in the market. On the other hand, services are intangible in the sense that they cannot be seen by the consumers. For instance customers cannot feel or touch courier services provided by some organizations. They are only supposed to trust the providers based on their understanding. An inventory of goods can easily be kept because of their physical characteristics. It is very difficult to make an inventory of services produced by an organization(Jacobs 2010, p.22).
Services are usually unique and they can be used to identify a particular firm or agency. Water and Electricity companies are unique with the intangible products they produce to meet the expectation of consumers in the market.
For instance customer may require support services when they are supplied with internet services. This might become necessary especially when technical problems occur in the course of using the services provided.
Goods are made with the intention of reducing human customer interaction in the course of their utilization. For instance most producers provide instructions on goods concerning their use by the consumers. Goods such as electronics and automobiles are distributed with reduced customer interaction because the consumers can freely manipulate them in the course of their use (Jacobs 2010, p.22).
Buying a loaf of bread is different from buying a car based on the requirements needed by the consumers. Buying a loaf of bread is a simple process compared to buying a car. A loaf of bread is known by all consumers and can be returned to the seller if a defect is found. For instance, if a consumer cuts the loaf and finds some foreign materials, he can return to the supplier for a refund or exchange with a good loaf. Buying a car on the other hand is not simple based on the number of processes the buyer has to go through before deciding to become the owner of the car. For example the owner has to ensure that the car is in good condition and the documents are valid. It is only after verification of documents that a decision to buy it is initiated by the seller.
Production is different from capacity in a number of ways. Production refers to the process through which goods and services are created in an organization. Before goods or services are created, a number of things happen and they all aim at producing the goods or services.
Operations management ensures that activities are directed towards creation of goods and services. Activities in operations management work to create value which later comes out as goods and services. In a manufacturing scenario, operations management ensures that the raw materials are delivered in time and are acted upon so as to come up with goods that can satisfy the expectations of consumers. Operation management therefore makes sure that inputs are transformed into outputs hence becoming valuables in the market (Jacobs 2010, p.43).
Capacity on the other hand is different from production in the sense that it is concerned with the ability to hold, store or handle goods and services. This ability is determined by the resources available in an organization. Some organization may have larger capacities in handling goods and services while others have a small capacity. Capacity can be used as a measure of the effectiveness of operations management. With well managed operations in goods and services, there is always preparedness in handling of goods and services. A hospital that has efficient operations management can handle emergency situations because of a good capacity that is facilitated by the available resources. (Jacobs 2010, p.45).
Economies of scale in inventories are relevant in the case of a steel manufacturing plant. Steel manufacturing requires bulk and homogenous production. This can be well achieved though making good use of the inventories. In terms of efficiency, economies of scale are relevant to the steel manufacturing companies. This is in light of the fact that when firms expand, their efficiency to utilize the available resources is enhanced. When resources are being well utilized, more desirable results are realized. With economies of scale, the cost of transport of raw materials to and from the steel manufacturing plant tends to influence the size of the firm. When the costs are low, firms may expand and serve the customers to their satisfaction. However when the costs of transport are high in the same firm, it becomes difficult to reach out to many customers. Economies of scale, in the inventories, helps steel manufacturing plants to reduce the costs that can be associated with the transport of raw materials to the plant, and distribution of the finished products to the customers. The economies of scale are therefore crucial in production planning of a steel manufacturing plant. Good production planning would therefore aim at reducing the costs of processes such as transport (Jacobs 2010, p.76).
In the case of a hospital, dependability of inventories is relevant. This is in light of the fact that hospital falls under the service sector. The clients in this case have higher expectations that should be met by the supply chain. Inventories have to be dependable to prevent failure which can have a huge impact on the organization especially when the needs of clients are not addressed or there are delays in the delivery of services. A good inventory guarantees efficient services to the patients in a hospital. In the production planning strategy of a hospital the inventories are selected based on their capacity to provide the most efficient services
In conclusion, operations management is essential for organizations both in the goods and service sectors. Consumers of goods and services can only be satisfied if the operations management is effective. The goods and service firms show differences in their structure and inventories but they are all focused on the needs of the customers. Inventories play a very significant role in the production planning and management of steel manufacturing firms and hospitals. Their ability to satisfy the needs of consumers is based on how efficient their inventories have been organized.
Jacobs R(2010) Operations and supply management. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies