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This paper offers detailed sources of information in the study of the relationships between Canada and china, and an overview of how the relationship came to exist. It is interesting to research and study a superpower country such as Canada and its impact on a fast growing country, china. A significant relationship between Canada and china is based on economic activities such as trade and investments. In the mid twentieth century the major economic contacts between the two countries was Canada’s exportation of wheat. During those times foreign investment was of no idea. At the moment, China is the Canada’s third largest export destination and second largest source of imports worldwide. Moreover, political wheel has brought much of the changes since the communist party of China took over leadership of the country in 1949, calling it the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Most authors of history books explain this, and other relationships, to have evolved considerably and rapidly since 1949.

The Research and choice of sources

This research relies on library materials such as books, magazines and journals; and internet to comprehend learners with the relationship between Canada and china. No single author(s) give all what is right about the dynamism of the international relations. Therefore, relevant sources are combined to get deep and exact information regarding the relations and its impacts.

The sources used in researching essay for Canada-china relationship are: Skeldon Ronald’s “ Migration from china: journal of international affairs”,  Poy, Vivienne and Cao’s

commentary book “The China challenge: Sino-Canadian relations in the 21st century, 2011”,

Chan Arlene’s  “The Chinese community in Toronto then and now, 2013”, Ruth

Hayhoe’s “Portraits of influential Chinese educators, 2007”, Ronald Sheldon’s “Migration from china: journal of international affairs,  and Michael Holden’sCanada's Trade Policy and Economic Relationship with China: Journal of International affairs, trade and finance division, 2008”. Among these sources are commentaries, websites for historic archives, journals and academic sources that are easily accessible in the university library and the internet. They are from different authors who are of different academic backgrounds and have different perception on the historic relationship of Canada to china. The sources compare superiority relationship between Canada and China. It is through Poy, Vivienne and Cao that Canada is revealed to be keeping little track of the innovative policy for government efforts to engage china in ways that will see it meet the imperatives that China is going through in its expansion and transformation, hence fast growth of china than Canada.

Annotated sources and analytical review

Ronald, Skeldon. Migration from china: journal of international affairs. Winter96, Vol. 49, Issue2, p434-438, is an article showing expansion objectives of the Chinese as a result of superpowers’ intervention, Canada included. The author illustrates that expulsions and migration of people took place due to the warfare and famine. In times of peace and economic growth people moved to Canadian towns with intentions of returning. However the source does not show the clear movement of Chinese into Canada.  Ronald, (pg434) asserts that Movements back home was an integral part of all settler migration systems, hiding clear distinction between settlers and sojourners in the Asian migration.

 Secondly, Poy, Vivienne, and Huhua Cao, The China challenge: Sino-Canadian relations in the 21st century. (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2011). In this book authors lament shortcoming of the Canada’s ability to challenge the rising of china to power over the last three decades. China is perceived to be transforming progressively year by year through a process of sloughing off the legacy of Marxist ideology and Leninist organization that transitioned the People’s Republic of china from 1949 through the inauguration of the new paradigm called “opening reform” in 1978. On the weakest side, this analysis is based on theory in which china is seen to be highly active in growth dynamics while Canada is depicted as static and inactive. It also neglects core aspects of political, economic and social systems that are paramount to the regime in China.

Thirdly, Chan, Arlene, The Chinese community in Toronto then and now. (Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2013). This source will illustrate the effect of Canada-Chinese population growth in Canada. Within a few years there was an increase of number of people leaving china for Canada. Therefore family reunification was so strong due to developing relationship between Canadians and the Chinese. However, china was getting sparsely populated leading to no promise of future particularly for investments. This source does not show impact of the outcome domination of Chinese culture in Canada.

Fourth, Hayhoe, Ruth. Portraits of influential Chinese educators. (Berlin: Springer, 2007) shows the academic (education) system relationship between china and Canada. In 1989, a doctoral program combined scholars from both countries, and china provided financial aid to support the program.

This source shows the cross culture relationship among the scholars of Canada and China and the outcome of this interaction. This source however does give clear difference and superiority of either forms of education of the two countries.

Finally, Holden, Michael. Canada's Trade Policy and Economic Relationship with China: Journal of International affairs, trade and finance division. (Parliament of Canada, 2008). This source shows evolution of the 1970s’ significant developments for economic and political relationship between China and Canada. Holden, 2008 asserts that at the beginning of the communist regime, an official trade policy between china and Canada did not exist. Therefore, this source reveals Canada’s recognition of the existence of opportunities for gains from establishing formal trading relations with China. However, some factors dragged the beginning of official political and economic ties of the two countries until 1970s. This source reveals the concern that extended official recognition to China was not highly respected in the United States and other superpower nations. 

Non-annotated sources include

 MacKenzie King Diaries http://king.collectionscanada.gc.ca/EN/default.asp




Choquette, Robert. Canada's religions: an historical introduction. Ottawa: (Univ. of Ottawa Press, 2004).                              

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