Research paper sample-Role of States in World Politics

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This research paper seeks to question whether states are the only relevant conceptual actors in world politics by analysing the realist and liberal accounts of international relations theory. It also seeks to argue that globalisation has heightened the relevancy of non-state actors within the international relations discourse, arguing that the role of non-state actors must be taken more seriously by scholars. It also intends to argue that there are many non-state actors that are relevant conceptual actors in world politics and that state-centric approaches are insufficient for gaining more nuanced analysis of world politics.

Table of contents

There are numerous ways to approach this central research question but fundamentally there is a need to analyse the realist and liberal accounts of international relations theory. There are many examples of non-state actors that are relevant in international relations. These include international organisations like the United Nations, regional institutions like the European Union, transnational corporations like Starbucks and international non-governmental organisations like Oxfam. Terrorist networks like the Al-Qaeda, and drug and human traffickers are also transnational in nature and are relevant conceptual actors in world politics. It is important to remember that the big contemporary challenges that face states are not limited to them; but require at least some form of integration and cooperation, for example, trans-boundary haze pollution across the Indonesian archipelago, Malaysia and Singapore requires responses and problem solving mechanisms across all three countries.


Inter-state relations have traditionally been at the heart of international relations analysis. However, it will be argued that there has been an increasing relevancy of other actors in world politics during the second half of the twentieth century. This research paper will argue that this relevancy has been heightened in many ways by what has been termed as the third wave of globalisation since the 1980s. Within an era of globalisation it is essential to understand the importance of the role of trans-national corporations (instantly synonymous with global brands like Starbucks).

Globalisation has been defined as ‘the intensification of world wide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa’ (Giddens 1990:64). Economic globalisation in the form of free trade has meant that trans-national corporations have flourished and profited from unregulated markets (arguably at the expense of the global south). Within the liberal-pluralist paradigm globalisation has been characterised by increasing interdependence; a characterisation, it has been argued, that realists are ill-equipped to deal with. This sentiment has been reinforced by Mansbach and Vasquez, who have argued that realism has supplied ‘a narrow and incomplete description and explanation of world affairs’ (Mansbach and Vasquez 1981: 6).

Classical realism is the oldest theory of international relations, and one that has subsequently dominated international relations analysis. It has been suggested that ‘rationality and state-centrism are frequently identified as core realist premises’ (Donnelly 2009: 32). The realist understanding of world politics assumes, in the tradition of Machiavelli and Hobbes that men are by nature egotistical and act selfishly. The personification of states, coupled with the notion that international society is anarchic (as there is no central authority in the form of a world government) has meant the assertion that states act primarily in their own self-interest has dominated our understanding of world politics. It has been noted that ‘the pursuit of hegemony and world conquest by Nazism had put into question the effectiveness of international institutions and stressed the role of power in world politics’ (Geeraerts: 2009). It was ultimately a rejection of liberal institutionalism that popularised realism within the field of international relations. Young has argued that realism is founded on ‘essentially homogenous political systems with regard to type of actor’ (Young 1972: 126). Realists essentially see international organisations as instruments of states. The United Nations, for example, is only a sum of its parts and is not above states; but is in essence a club of states unable to stop powerful actor’s interests. International law, for example, did very little in deterring Tony Blair from invading Iraq.

Of course membership of international society is not optional, as ‘states cannot alter their geographic location; territories cannot be made to go away’ (Knutsen 1997: 3), and although there is no world government; liberal institutionalists have argued that ‘cooperation between states can be organized and formalized in institutions’ (Burchill 2009: 66). Liberal institutionalists have advocated that ‘conflict between states would be reduced by creating a common interest in trade and economic collaboration among members of the same geographical region’ (Burchill 2009: 66). A prominent example of this can be seen in the establishment of the European Union. This post second world war project can therefore be conceptualised as the desire to end conflict through political and economic integration. Although not a unified school of thought the pluralist conception of international relations provided an alternative approach to state-centrism. Keohane and Nye concluded that ‘the state is not necessarily the only important actor in world politics nor the gatekeeper between intra-societal and extra-societal flows of actions’ (Geeraerts: 2009). Liberalism has essentially argued that statecentric approaches are ill-equipped to deal with the complexities of world politics.
Historically, international relation as an academic discipline has been concerned with inter-state relations. However, contemporary international relations discourse has become increasingly aware of the prevalence and importance of non-state actors in world politics. ‘The rise of these trans-nationally organised non-state actors and their growing involvement in world politics challenge the assumptions of traditional approaches to international relations which assume that states are the only important units of the international system’ (Geeraerts: 2009). This of course is not to suggest that states are no longer important or useful in international relations analyses but increasingly other actors need to be understood to provide more nuanced analyses. It has been argued that ‘the world policy is in the process of self-transformation – out of the traditional nation-state system and into a system more congruent with the contemporary global polyarchy’ (Brown 1995: 268). The evolution of non-state actors has demonstrated the need for international relations to take these actors seriously – otherwise it will be ill-equipped to provide nuanced analyses of world politics.

Brown, S. (1995). New Forces, Old Forces, and the Future of World Politics. Post-Cold War Edition, New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
 Burchill, S. (2009). Liberalism. In Burchill, S. et al (Eds.), Theories of International Relation. Fourth Edition, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Donnelly, J. (2009). Realism. In Burchill, S. et al (Eds.), Theories of International Relations. Fourth Edition, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Geeraerts, G. (2009). Analyzing Non-State Actors in World Politics. New York: Palgrave publishers.
Giddens, A. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Knutsen, T. (1997). A History of International Relations Theory. Second Edition, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Mansbach, R. and Vasquez, J. (1981). In Search of Theory: A New Paradigm for Global Politics.
New York: Columbia University Press.
Young, O.R. (1972). The Actors in World Politics. In Rosenau, J. and East, M. (Eds.), The Analysis of International Politics (pp. 125-144). New York: The Free Press.

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Research Paper sample-Operation Management in Toyota Motor Corporation

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Operations management is a section of management that focuses on running the designing of business processes in production of services and goods. The operations management sector is tasked with making sure that the resources of an organisation are efficiently exploited to create goods and services, and in a manner that excellently meets the needs of the consumer. Consequently, operations management includes the whole continuum from the creation of goods and services precisely through to when consumers acquire them, and the consumer processes management.
Consumer value is improved by quality improvements, cost reductions, minimized waiting times, and heightened flexibility in answering to shifting consumer demands. Eventually, developments in customer value creation are intended to escalate the value for the organisation by building a grander consumer base therefore making more revenue. They further argue that numerous simulations of competition are in economic literature, and can be effectively used to elucidate the choice of operations management exercises embraced by any organisation.
Chase &Jacobs (2006), note that over the past two decades, U.S companies have faced competitive pressures causing them to introduce numerous management practices for instance just in time, employee empowerment, full quality management, so that they can compete with the overseas counterparts. As such, Cousins, Lawson & Squire (2006), classify the decisions areas of operation management into four very broad classifications of process selection, product design, planning and control, and quality management. Operations management applies influence and control over how these decisions are completed. This essay will attempt to discuss the operations management of a case study. It will look into production and quality management exercises of the company as well as operations management decisions, and organizations’ strategy.

For the tenacities of this study, the case study is Toyota Motor Corporation which is a leading vehicle manufacturer globally. The choice of this case study was influenced by the fact that Toyota Motor Corporation deploys very cutting-edge operations management techniques in creation and distribution of goods. By illustration, as early as 1930s Toyota Motor Corporation effected the just in time mode of inventory control (
Nevertheless, there has been the problem of faulty cars recently, prompting numerous million recalls round the globe and Toyota is engaged in law suits with the U.S Government. The law suits are in regard to flaws in the assembly of its cars which caused accidents and deaths within USA. These matters caused heavy financial and publicity damage as well as losing the position as the lead vehicle manufacturer globally. This study will critically examine Toyotas’ operations management practices to define their role on the organisations’ catastrophes.
The aim of the introduction has been to deliberate issues of operations management so as to lay the study into perspective. The next section shall focus on scrutinizing the practices of operations management of the case study. A brief history of the case study will be necessary so as to comprehend the practices of the organisation.

Toyota Motor Corporation

Toyota Motor Company was founded in 1937 by a Japanese man Kiichiro Toyoda. However, its history would be traced back to 1933 when Kiichiro Toyoda set up an automobile department at the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works Limited. In 1934, the company made its premier product, and named it Type ‘A’ Engine and the principal Toyota AA which was the premier passenger car in the year 1936. The Just in Time mode of operation was launched in 1938 when the company began working from the Honsha plant (Roehl & Fujimoto, 2000).
Financial crises emerged in Toyota in the 1950s leading to the Toyota Motor Sales Company Limited to be managed differently from the Toyota Motor Company. The two companies merged in 1982 forming the Toyota Motor Corporation. This company propelled the Toyopet Crown, Crown Deluxe and Master in 1955, and in 1957 the Toyota Crown first prototypes were exported to USA which saw the opening of the USA sales branch. Corolla trademark was propelled in 1966 an year after Toyota had emerged the winner of Deming Application Price for Quality Control (

In order to initiate production in USA, Toyota Motor Corporation teamed up with General Motors Corporation in 1984 as a joint venture. Remarkably, 1997 saw the introduction of the Prius brand which was mass produced and emerged as a hybrid car with the global record of being a best seller. Toyota has more recent brands such as: Toyota Rav4, Land Cruiser, Prado, Avensis, and Carina among others.

The company headquarters are in Japan though it has a worldwide presence. It is placed as one of the leading vehicle manufacturers and has over 80,000 employees globally. In 2009, the company was named the largest motor vehicle manufacturer in the world, a fact that was later to change after flaws in recent cars. Toyota is even registered on the Japanese, New York and London Stock Exchanges (

Operations Management in Toyota

Toyota Motor Corporation is renowned as one among the leading companies in manufacture of automobiles ( Roehl & Fujimoto, (2000), proposes that the rapid rise to success exuded by Toyota Motor Corporation can be associated with its operations and marketing strategies. Evidently, the management philosophy of the company has advanced since origin and this is illustrated by the operations of the organisation.
Among the significant features of the company’s operations include the Just in Time system of supply chain administration processes which the company keenly developed, as well as Lean manufacturing techniques, and embracing technology. Chase and Jacobs (2006) denotes that Toyota Production System was considered as quite efficient to a point of being endorsed for introduction to the Western motor vehicle manufacturing companies in the 1980s. The system was applied as a classic model to strengthen the changes needed in the automobile industry of USA.

Chase and Jacobs (2006) say that production system of Toyota is entirely immersed in the philosophy of total waste elimination in every aspect of production, and is committed to acquiring the most proficient methods to be applied by the organisation. Toyota productions system is a combination of Just in Time system and the Lean manufacturing system which equals to the complete process of manufacturing automobile. This process is the fruit of continuous effort and advancements over time so as to manufacture and deliver quality vehicles in the nippiest and most effective way.
In 2001, Toyota embraced its values and business techniques, often termed as the Toyota Way. These values and conduct guidelines are concise in five headlines of: Challenge, Respect, Go and See, Improvement and Teamwork (

Toyotas’ Strategy

Evidently, Toyota began laying strategies from the origin of the company. First, Toyota Motor Corporation branched out from Toyota automatic Loom works Limited a diversification that was well planned and has seen the rise of a conglomerate. Toyota expanded its scope of business to include making automobiles and equipment to handle materials. Toyota took advantage of lack of competition in Japan in the 1960s helping it gain a large market share and dominance.

Secondly, the merger between Toyota Corporation and General Motors brought about huge benefits to Toyota. The costs of exporting cars to USA were reduced as well as the hurdles associated with import restrictions imposed by the U.S congress. Toyota gained experience from American unionized labour, from the American suppliers, and the trade disputes that existed between Japan and America were diffused. This joint venture boosted the global presence of Toyota and the partnership is close to thirty years as of today. From the experience gained from General Motors, Toyota was able to open and successfully manufacture automobiles in other continents.

Another strategy is integration. Toyota saw the need to expand the scope of business after experiencing the effects of World War II. Suppliers of good quality parts were unavailable, shortage of material stirred products to be expensive and this greatly affected business. Toyota decided to manufacture body parts instead of relying on suppliers (Roehl & Fujimoto, 2000). It also meant that the company would design and modify these vehicle parts gradually and at their own will. Today, the integration has seen Toyota diversify into making steering wheels, fuel train products, air bags, machinery recycling components among others. Notably, integration has caused increase in sales volumes and revenue.

SWOT Analysis
1.New investments
Toyota ventured into China and America markets with the right product for each market. America needed the bigger SUV cars, and Toyota gave made Qualis and Fortuner, which sold impressively. On the other hand, China prefers cars that are fuel-efficient therefore sedans, Corolla, Prius and Camry did exceedingly well here. Toyota recorded huge profits because of this segmentation.


Due to its diversification, Toyota remains one of the leading manufacturers of motor vehicles competing with Ford and General Motors. Such strong industry position is grounded on targeting the highest market, a diverse range of products, and unshaken commitment to quality and lean manufacturing.
3.Maximizing on profits
By way of Total Quality Management or TQM the company is able to maximise profits. Total Quality Management is an integrative combination of principles and behaviour assumed by Toyota’s management in a bid to keep improving the standard of goods and services. The company makes small and large cars designed for different purposes such that if a certain brand reduces saes, then there is another that is on peak.

4.Strong Brand Image

Toyota has Prius and Corolla as flagship models under which it continues to make sales. It is also known for being environmentally friendly as it produces ‘green’ cars, hybrid and effective cars (Stevenson, 2014). The company heightens its brand awareness, and trades more cars so as to escalate the existing brand image. Toyota also conducts surveys from clients and through that; they learnt that clients are concerned about fuel efficiency and emissions of carbon dioxide.


1.Recalls in large scale

Between the year 2009-2010 Toyota recalled 9 million cars, and in 2012 about 7.43 million vehicles due to safety issues and defects. These recalls hurt the firm both financially and the brand image too.
Weak presence in developing markets
Most Toyota products are sold in Japan, USA and Europe meaning that fluctuation in economy or political situations in these markets exposes Toyota to risks. The company should reach out to China and Africa. General Motors boasts of enormous market share in China and Toyota should look towards Africa. It should produce smaller and cheaper cars as there is so much potential in Africa.


1.New Customer Segments

The launch of Toyota Aygo targets the urban youth’s market that is now independent and wealthy. The vehicle is a classy, unique convertible and has inbuilt sub woofers. Being a recent venture, it is not highly profitable but that will definitely change in the near future (

2.Hybrid and Eco friendly Technology

Toyota and Lexus are known for producing cars that are environment friendly such as the Toyota Prius and Lexus RX 400h hybrid. Toyota should maximise on this opportunity since people want fuel efficient cars and environment friendly cars. This would lead to massive profits and increase the company market share.
Global Expansion
By venturing into new markets and growing the market share and operations in China and India, Toyota is raising its global presence. The emerging economies indicate massive demand for vehicles. So as to endure and compete in the global spectrum, Toyota has to elevate its market share in emerging countries.



There are new companies storming into the market from South Korea, China and Eastern Europe and they pose terrific competitive rivalry in the industry (Roehl & Fujimoto, 2000). General Motors has reorganized and emerged stronger while Volkswagen is growing steadily. Toyota has presented innovative products like cheaper cars and customized cars such as the Aygo targeting the youth.

2.Shifts in exchange rates

Considering that the largest part of Toyota’s raw materials and revenue arise from foreign states, the profits earned overseas have to be sent to Japan and converted to Yen. This forces Toyota to wait till Yen depreciates resulting to delayed payments and amplified debts which is not respectable for the company. This threat is not easy to curtail though Toyota may set up centres in other nations so as appreciate their profits through that country’s exchange rate.

Operation Management Decisions

1.Supply-chain Management

Decisions regarding the suppliers of raw materials or services are considered quite crucial in the management of Toyota. As outlined earlier, Toyota is diverse and has integrated into producing the raw materials it requires. However, need arises to outsource some services (Chase & Jacobs, 2006). The decision to outsource and pick suppliers is a huge determinant of the success of Toyota. Suppliers have to be reliable, driven, and understand Toyota specific needs. It is also recommended to integrate the suppliers into the company if the partnership has proved indispensible.

2.Design of goods and services

The success of the company is measured by how much profit is generated, customer satisfaction, and the tenacity of the brand image among others. Success cannot be achieved if the vehicles are not of quality. Toyota is associated with success because it made the decision to produce quality, affordable, durable and classic vehicles. Toyota continues to increase innovation and this could only mean that its success is guaranteed.

3.Planning and Scheduling

Since Toyota only produces cars on demand rather than for stocking purposes, it is evident that scheduling will therefore, necessitate a top-notch automation level and a demand pull system. This caters for programmed and efficient scheduling which means that when certain market has been met, then employees are tasked to meet another demand. This way, employees will not be placed on payroll during slowdowns rather their skills are deployed elsewhere (Chase & Jacobs, 2006).

4.Process and capacity design

Toyota has mastered the art of processing its vehicles over time and has managed to balance the need for labourers and machines as well. The company has invested in quality and handy equipment to speed up the process. Technology has made it possible to draw new vehicle designs with the help of engineers and field experts. The decision to deploy such initiatives is pegged on long-term goals.

Just In Time Processing, Material Requirements Planning and Inventory control
As stated earlier, the rapid rise of Toyota is attributed to the fact that Toyota utilised the Just in Time processing system as early as 1930s. The system only allows production to be carried out to encounter demand and there is subsequently zero inventories, and a tough prominence in quality (Stevenson, 2014). It eradicates wastage of resources by the price of holding together inputs and outputs.
The material needed for production is only bought when production is necessary, and production is done to satisfy an established market, instead of just for speculative purposes. Therefore both the production and distribution chains are leaner. Additionally, the resources that would be taut down in inventories of completed goods or raw supplies are utilised elsewhere by Toyota (Chase & Jacobs, 2006). This decision boosts Toyotas success as holding costs are reduced, workers with multiple skills are utilised more effectively, and respectable supplier relationships are preserved.

Managing quality
Quality is defined to meet the requirements of the customer. If the quality of vehicles fail to meet what the client expects then the sales will decrease. Toyota production system is responsible of generating vehicles that meet the international standard (Stevenson, 2014). Note that competition is stiff and if the production system fails, Toyota might face financial losses such as the loss felt during the mass recall of vehicles. The company has applied innovation to raise the level of quality and comfort.

Location strategy

The headquarters of Toyota are in Japan however; its presence is felt globally. This is as a result of branching out and strategically putting up base in viable location. The global expansion has stimulated success of this company. The facilities are put up in geographically expansive locations as well as centre points for serving the vehicle markets. Toyota has made sure that a customer can access its products by being somewhere proximal. Some places like Africa do not have a facility so customers’ needs are met by shipping cars from Japan (Roehl & Fujimoto, 2000).


The Toyota production system is bestowed with the responsibility of making durable, quality and reliable vehicles as well as maintenance. For instance, the massive recall of millions of cars in 2010 was done as the vehicles were flawed and defected. Although the recall amounted to massive financial losses and various law suits, it was a measure that prevented what would have been a catastrophe had the cars been used. The company goal is to make cars that suit needs of the client and that goal has to be achieved at all costs.

Human resource

Employees are recruited in a fair process, selected and trained according to job requirements, and developed, rewarded and appraised through occasionally. Staffs are considered the organisations most vital asset and have to be treated as important by providing a reasonable work environment (Stevenson, 2014). Toyota is a reputable employer with over 80,000 employees as of today who are committed to customer service.

Layout strategy

Toyotas’ facility in Japan is largest as it has to produce for the largest market. In other countries the facilities are on smaller ground but are systematically arranged and effectively utilised. They are large enough to accommodate machinery, structures and manpower required to do the job. Space utilization requires a planner so that there is no wastage.

Chase, R. B., Aquilano, N. J., & Jacobs, F. R. (2004). Operations management for competitive advantage (10th Ed.). Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill.
Company. (n.d.). Toyota Global Site. Retrieved July 24, 2014, from
Cousins, P. D., Lawson, B., & Squire, B. (2006). Supply chain management theory and practice the emergence of an academic discipline? Bradford, England: Emerald Group Pub.
Cousins, P. D., Lawson, B., & Squire, B. (2006). Supply chain management theory and practice the emergence of an academic discipline? Bradford, England: Emerald Group Pub.
Roehl, T., & Fujimoto, T. (2000). The Evolution of a Manufacturing System at Toyota. The Academy of Management Review, 25(2), 439.
Stevenson, W. J. (2014). Operations management (Twelfth Ed.). Georgia: McGraw-Hill Education.

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Research Paper Sample:Digital Media

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Digital media is an electronic media that works on digital codes. It is comprised of technology such as the internet, smart phones, television, video games, etc. The persistent advancement of digital media has adversely impacted the modern society. To the consumer base, it has provided them with a broad range of information as well as opportunity to educate and learn one’s self (Feldman 23). Although there is robust significance of digital media, these technologies are bad for us because its cons far outweigh the pros. While it has improved the people learn and conduct business operations as a society, it has also caused problems.


The primary goal of this paper is to evaluate and demonstrate why digital media is bad for people in the modern society.


The presence digital media has fostered a wide range of activities and engagement among its users. Some of this engagement includes gaming, civic, communication, learning, information, investing, buying, social networking, individual networking, politics, leisure, etc. Although the varying uses of digital media has augmented its relevance in the modern society it has led to negative impacts to the human life.

For starters, it has aggravated social disadvantages among people who are already suffering from social exclusion due to low income, poor health, poor social skills, education and other social attributes. According to Ellen, Helsper (9), people who are socially deprived are most likely the least to have access to varying digital resources e.g. internet services. From the study undertaken by this researcher, one out of 10 of the adult populace suffers from dire combination of social disadvantages as well as a nominal significant engagement with internet services. This population accounts for about four million people who suffer from the extended social exclusion. Additionally, her study revealed that out of four people suffering from the deep social exclusion, only three have limited engagement with online services. This extrapolates to approximately 13% of England’s population or about 6 million adults (Helsper 9).

In her study, deep/ extended social exclusion is constituted of a combination of low income, little education, health problems as well as low social status (Helsper 11). Deep digital exclusion on the other hand, means no access to digital media. Similarly, it means that access to digital media such as online services is of low quality (dial up) when accessed from home, or high quality accessed outside the home, or negative perception towards digital media and limited utilization of the internet.

Moreover, digital media is bad for us since it has reinforced segregation in marginalized areas and population. In a state for instance, the advancement of digital media plays a vital role in improving the quality and living standards of people. This advancement is bad since it is not easily available to all and sundry across the states. This contributes in further enriching the affluent while impoverishing the poor. In business operations the presence of digital media is bad as it instigates an unfair competitive environment.

Secondly, digital media is bad because it wastes people’s time, energy and also resources in a way that ultimately deteriorates the innovative and critical skills of its users, especially the children and young adults. Young children as well as young adults have been surrounded by numerous opportunities to develop and utilize their emergent skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing. These opportunities are as diversified as the language, people and culture that represent and accede the many linguistic, socio-emotional and cognitive resources available to them in their daily routines (Bennett et al 31).

Although digital media has played an indispensible role in providing access to information and exposure to diversified language and culture, it has also caused a greater harm to these young minds. Digital media such as home video games, television sets among others have become very popular in the modern world. Many people have spent large amounts of money on the varying forms of digital media that would otherwise be spent on other indispensible factors of production (Bennett et al 33). For instance, in order to enjoy the diversified TV Channels, users are required to make monthly subscriptions to their decoder. At intervals, they are required to purchase other forms of entertainment such as DVDs, CDs, video players, etc. in order to attain their preferred entertainment.

To young adults and children, digital media has inhibited the development of innovative and critical skills (Bennett et al 34). This is because television programs as well as video games consume a lot of time that they could otherwise be spending developing these skills through drawing, writing and other constructive activities. Furthermore, utilizing digital media over a long time imposes a human brain into some form of stupor. This is because in the human mind, staring at the video games/ television programs for long hours is like staring at a blank wall for several hours, causing a human brain to operate like a zombie. The case is worsened if the programs being featured are not interactive in a manner that causes its users to think critically about different issues in life.

The bad impacts of media can be reflected on learner’s poor performance in school. It can also be reflected by an individual’s behavior of procrastinating and/ or neglecting their activities. Similarly, the many hours that digital media decoys its users to spend on negatively impacts their health. This is because it makes them immobile and physically inactive. This increases the health risks of digital media users to attain obesity as well as over weigh issues.

The other adverse effect that digital media brings with it is that it exposes people to bad media content such as violence, sexual immorality and drugs. This content has dire effects especially when it is exposed to young adults and children since it fosters negative influences such as teenage sex and pregnancies, substance abuse, bullying, etc. A closer evaluation to the form of digital media exposed to children like video games, cartoon programs and other programs reveals that most of the children content comprised within the digital media is constituted of violence (Lake et al 159). This situation is worsened by the fact that information spread by digital media cannot be constrained.

 Young adults have access to pornographic material, drug and substances abuse as well as violent materials all which have played a core influence in negatively impacting their lives. Studies reveal that people with easy access of digital media face a higher risk of being influenced by the negative content comprised in digital media (Lake et al 159). Thus, although media is comprised with useful resources, its spread and advancement is considerably bad for people in the modern society.



In order to assuage the negative impacts that have been enhanced by digital media, parents, teachers, government and other authoritative bodies can help limit access of digital media among users. Law enforcers can be used to monitor and enact corrective measures to discipline bad behavior.

Work Cited

Bennett, John & Strange, Nikki. (eds.) Television as Digital Media. Duke University Press, 2013

Feldman, Tony. An Introduction of Digital Media. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013

Helsper, Ellen. Digital Inclusion: An Analysis of Social Disadvantage and Information Society. Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute, 2008

Lake, Susan & May, Karen. Digital Media: Concepts and Applications. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning, 2011

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HealthCare Research Paper Sample-SECURITY OF HEALTH DATA

HealthCare Research Paper Sample-SECURITY OF HEALTH DATA - 4.5 out of 5 based on 2 reviews
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Health data is very important in many aspects like containing vital individual data and in research of diseases and health outcomes. This data is very sensitive and strict security measures should be put in place to ensure that it does not fall in to the wrong persons. Due to technological advancement, health data can be accessed by many devices and this also brings up the concern on the security of the data. Consumers are taking more control due to advancement in information technology which is arises from self-care. Since physicians are busy and typically inaccessible, there has cropped up a new method of communicating with the physicians. Technology has made it possible to come up with digital medicine that is more experimental, more effective, more widely distributed, more precise and more egalitarian as compared to the current medical practice. Most healthcare facilities do not give a first priority to disaster recovery when it comes to their healthcare IT budgets. This is a very important aspect in a healthcare organization because without it data might be lost in case of natural disasters or cyber-attacks. Cybersecurity systems in healthcare organizations are lax when you compare them to other sectors and this makes them vulnerable to attacks by hackers. Precautions should be put in place to ensure that health data is safe and secure. This paper will outline who can access health data, the importance of security of health data and the different ways in which this health data can be kept secure.

Access to Health Data
Health data in today’s world is used in many forms to investigate the level and distribution of disease and other health outcomes in the society. Health data can be obtained from health systems, insurance companies, public health departments, and providers. The privacy of medical information has always been a concern of responsible medical care. In recent times however, new forms of data have come up which are highly sensitive. If this information is accessed by the wrong persons and used improperly, it can damage an individual’s insurability and employability as well as their psychological well-being (Armstrong, Rushton & Zimmerman, 1999). Such data includes results of HIV test and genetic susceptibility testing.

There should be fundamental societal decisions put in place to balance the need for access to an individual’s indentified health data for the public good and at the same time the importance of an individual privacy. A balanced approach is required because any access are mutually exclusive. There has been an increased restriction on access to personal health data by health scientists and epidemiologists. This can prove to be harmful to the public in different ways and there has been a suggestion on anomyzation of archived medical data (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). However, this will make it difficult to trace back to an individual and because anything can happen in the future, it is important that individual identifiers be retained in a way. Privacy of medical information can be strengthened by requiring individuals to give informed consent for each separate use of this information.
However, this is unrealistic because contacting individuals or their next of kin for permission to use their information each time it is needed to be used for research years or decades later after the event has occurred seems unrealistic. This will lead to untenable administrative, logistical and financial burdens. It is essential to be able to study medical records over a period of time even after the individuals have left organized health systems or died. Personal health information need to be free of serious selection biases and be available on a population basis (Armstrong, Rushton & Zimmerman, 1999). Some of this selection biases include nonparticipation, in the population at risk. This is because such biases undermines the scientific validity of medical and public health research.

Devices and Technology Used In Security of Health Data

There are several devices that are used to access Electronic Protected Health Information (EPHI) that include portable media/devices such as USB flash drives and memory cards, mobile devices, personal digital assistants (PDA) , laptops, Wireless Access Points (WAPs) and home computers. Other devices also include floppy disks, CDs, DVDs, back up media, email, smart cards, and Remote Access Devices which includes security hardware. All these devices are expected to be in compliance with the HIPAA Security Rule which includes, among its requirement, reviewing and modifying security policies and procedures where necessary on a regular basis. This is particularly of significance for organizations that allow their staff to use remote access to EPHI through external systems or portable devices or hardware that is not owned or managed by the covered entity (Clarke et al, 2007, August).
Generally, covered entities should be very careful on the use of offsite or access to EPHI though there might be situations that might require access or use of such offsite. An example is when it has been found to be necessary through the entity’s business case or cases (Ammenwerth et al, 2003). Another example is only when great precision has been taken to ensure that procedures, policies, and workforce training have been effectively deployed. Also, access can be provided when it is consistent with the relevant necessities of the HIPAA Privacy Rule.
Some of the cases where this might apply include a home health nurse visiting a patient and requires to access and collet the patient data using a laptop or a PDA. Another case can be a physician responding to a patient’s request for a refill while out of the office using an e-prescribing application on a PDA. Also, a health plan employee going to deliver backup enrollee data to an offsite facility on a media storage device. There are other business cases that might require the offsite use of or access to EPHI hence a covered entity must evaluate its own need for offsite use or access. In coming up with which security strategy to be used the following factors should be put into consideration. The complexity, the size and the capabilities of the covered entity, its technical hardware, infrastructure, and its software capabilities. You should also put into consideration the cost of security measures and the criticality and probability of potential risks to EPHI (Clarke et al, 2007, August).

E-health Issues

Connecting with the healthcare consumer
More than ever, consumers are positioned to undertake pre-emptive, decision making roles in terms of healthcare. As seen from self-care, the evolving of the patient-provider relationship, and advances in information technology, consumers are taking more control. Consumerism is having an impact on the operations, strategy, and decisions regarding investments of healthcare organizations. This is within all sectors of the industry and it is becoming more significant and apparent (Kizer, 2001). Consumers have changed and this consumer evolution has had a great impact on various sectors of the healthcare industry. This new crop of empowered and informed consumers guarantees the need for providers and executives to find a new methods to satisfy its consumers and its impact on improving of delivering healthcare. This mostly touches on the point where quality is concerned and the places where you can access healthcare.

Some organization prioritize developing their quality and safety frameworks and clinical governance structure which is the process, rather than the end product which is the safe care and patient centered care. Just like the air industry, the healthcare industry should make it a priority to maintain safety and quality through the foundation work ensuring standards are met, the monitoring of care and that the necessary policies are implemented. Another important aspect in connecting with the healthcare consumer is providing quality governance (Kizer, 2001). They should also develop systems with a definite purpose and provide a concrete relationship between quality of care and governance systems.
Emphasis should be put on the significance of promoting a common culture that can be shared by everyone in the healthcare sector, which is of putting the patient first. To be able to have quality governance, there should be strategic planning, effective and accountable workforce, consumer participation and compliance, good practice risk and improvement. To be able to run a successful healthcare center, it should have care that is connected and responsive to the individual and care that is safe and effective for all their patients anytime. They should also be supportive to their staff and trust them to deliver on the same (Kizer, 2001).

Physician E-mail

Unlike the traditional form of media-buying practices, email has upended it by coming up with a new medium that has unique purchasing considerations. This new method has been brought out by office-based physicians being busy and typically inaccessible. It has become crucial that the elements of email communication be considered to maximize results. Some of these elements include physician email address, design, and timing and composition. Since most of physicians work, communicate, access patients’ information online, and give prescription and access information online using smartphones, the most effective way to capture their attention is through email. Email marketing is fast and affordable hence being the mode of choice for many medical centers and pharmaceuticals (Rosen& Kwoh, 2007). Their target audience are prescribers for recruitment, surveys, product messages and webinars. Most of the companies that offer this services store the physician email addresses in the physician database. Most of these databases have phone numbers which are verified after a period of time like 6 months.
A company like SK&A has a unique verification process which offers a guarantee of monitoring their database ensuring that their clients receive the best physician email list. In case they add any new record or update their database, it is phone verified at the source by their Research Center. Most of commercial email databases get their physician emails through list compilation and web harvesting. In a company like SK&A, there are features and benefits to having access to physician email like you can select the audience by their type, specialty, geography, and type of practice or other profiling criteria. Also, you can be assured of deliverability because their database is updated regularly and they are affordable since you won’t have to pay for printing, postage or paper.

Email has the ability to narrowly target all types of physicians in any quantity unlike other forms of media such as television and print. When purchasing a physician list there are some considerations that you have to put in place. One of this consideration is that you have to narrow your audience and email marketing can offer this. It has the advantages of choosing exactly what you want without including any unwanted contacts. There are also other considerations like the name quality since it is important to reach an actual practitioner. List licensing is also important hence you should organize your email campaign to know the level of usage that you will require. Pricing is also another important consideration so you need to determine the scope of the audience by choosing a quantity of physician email addresses (Hobbs et al, 2003).

Digital Medicine

As technology advances, it presents great opportunities that assists in improving access to quality of health care. Technology has made it possible to come up with digital medicine that is more experimental, more effective, more widely distributed, more precise and more egalitarian as compared to the current medical practice. Digital medicine can be described as the convergence of computer assisted molecular and cellular diagnosis, artificial intelligence and computerized clinical decision support, wireless and mobile computer applications, telemedicine and broadband internet connectivity. It can be said that old medicine has been destroyed by convergence of wireless sensors, social networking, mobile connectivity and bandwidth, and cloud computing which has brought about new medicine (Graschew et al, 2006). With digital medicine it is envisioned that patients will be able to monitor their wellness and health by using digitized information.

Digital medicine will bring by a transformation in the patient-doctor relationship. Physicians will be largely replaced by artificial intelligence as the captains of the health care system. This will bring by equality between the physicians and patients when it comes to accessing medical knowledge. Unlike the present medicine approach that is to diagnose and treat, this new medicine approach promotes predict and prevent. This new approach concentrates on managing chronic diseases rather than outright cure. This brings out the meaning of health which is the state of mental, physical, and social well-being and not just absence of disease (West & Miller, 2009).

The use of smartphones is another form of digital medicine that help in detecting changes in a patient’s normal routine of activity and communication and in that way it may show worsening or a relapse of a chronic condition. Teenagers are also being involved in monitoring their health through texting, blogs and social media sites like twitter and Facebook. In this new digital medicine era, the function of imaging and pathology is being transformed due to the falling cost of computing and the development of miniaturization techniques including nanotechnology (Graschew et al, 2006). When performing heart surgery, the heart beat is produced in high resolution images through computer analysis of data through three dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. This has assisted in replacement of heart valves to be inserted by catheters instead of open heart surgery.

Disaster Recovery
In most healthcare facilities disaster recovery has not been given a priority when it comes to healthcare IT budgets. Due to budget restraints, it has become really hard for healthcare organizations to put their investment in redundant data centers. This has been caused by its direct effect on patient care or little return on investment. Most of the healthcare clients that do have disaster recovery plan are either found to be non-existent, outdated or fail to provide sufficient solutions to recover data and resume business incase disaster strikes. However, disaster recovery plan is being taken seriously because most of healthcare facilities are embracing new technologies. Electronic health records and medical imaging are generating unprecedented amount of data, which is bringing an impediment in recovery, storage and security. For healthcare organizations to maintain their patients, they must reassess their current gaps and risks in their data recovery planning (Eisenman et al, 2007).
Healthcare IT executives are facing challenges in adopting electronic health records and other new applications because they are creating large amount of data which need to be retrieved in real time. Because the data could be of great importance or urgent to a patient, downtime is not considered as an option. Another driving factor to adopt disaster recovery is the enforcement of HIPAA security requirements (Eisenman et al, 2007). Another driving factor is also the risk of cyber-attacks and data breaches is on the rise. This is attributed to the high rise in technology adoption. Due to the changing healthcare landscape, there is a need for a comprehensive disaster recovery planning. Long gone are the days when there used to be a disaster recovery manual not in use waiting to meet compliance obligations.

Healthcare organizations cybersecurity systems are lax when compared to other sectors and this makes them vulnerable to attacks by hackers. They do this so as to search for health insurance data and Americans’ personal medical records. Hackers are more intent on hacking health data because it is far more valuable on the black market than credit card numbers. Health data contains details than can allow the hackers to obtain prescriptions for controlled substances or access bank accounts. Financial and retail sectors are more resilient to cyber intrusions as compared to the healthcare industry, therefore the chances of increased cyber intrusions is more likely (Shou, 2012).
There is a high demand for medical information on criminal marketplaces partly because it takes a long time for the victims to know that their information has been stolen and report it. Another reason why medical information is targeted is because of the different ways the information can be used. Also, some criminals use the medical records to obtain prescriptions for controlled substances and other criminals are purely interested in using the information that they obtain for financial fraud. The medical information can be used for illegal and bogus treatment by billing the victims’ health plan for inflated or fake treatment claims. The medical information thieves who do not have their own health coverage use this information to obtain free treatment, courtesy of the victims’ policy (Shou, 2012).

In regards to accessing health data, a large majority of the public have great concern about the handling and privacy of their personal health information. The biggest concern is on the secondary use of the data which is not in the direct-care setting. The general belief is that the current organizational practices and laws do not provide enough privacy protection. The fact that we are transitioning from paper and part electronic record to electronic health records opens some valuable public good health researcher possibilities. However, it is a make or break issue for whether it will work for the better good from large scale health data research through electronic transmission and communication. Privacy is not an absolute but rather a matter of balance and judgment so we need new legislation since many people see that HIPAA is outdated. There is a need for excellent models of voluntary patient control privacy policies. There is also a need for independent health privacy compliance and audits verification processes.

When using technological devices to store health data information there is a need for using a password or other user authentication. Installing and enabling encryption also is another way of making sure that the health information is safe which is sent and stored on mobile devices. The mobile devices should also have remote disabling and/or wiping features. Remote wiping helps in erasing data permanently on the device remotely when you lose or the mobile device is stolen.
A personal firewall is also an important feature that protects against unauthorized connections. Information can be intercepted through public Wi-Fi networks so there should be enough security to receive or send health information over public Wi-Fi networks. Installing and enabling security software protects against malicious spyware, viruses and applications. The software installed should always be kept up to date. Before you download an app, you should research about it first and verify that it only performs the functions you approve of.

There is a widening gap among customers between their unmet needs and the system’s performance. There however has been a major change in consumers’ behaviors and attitudes intersect with the healthcare system. Consumers satisfaction with elements of the healthcare system tend to vary consistently being less satisfied with hospital care and for health plans, more with primary care services. The key issues that most consumers tends to pay much attention are cost, access, and value. Consumers are more interested in better and more choices as health care and consumerism grows. Some of these services are like retail clinics and customizable health plans. Most of the consumers relate to healthcare on a personal basis and their understanding of the health care system is based on their personal experiences. This leads to them holding a strong opinion about its performance. Consumers are hoping for a lower cost n primary care and improved quality of the healthcare system overall.

Physicians use and adoption of E-mail enhances communication and improves patient outcomes and quality of care though it remains low. Most patients are willing to communicate with their physicians via e-mail. There are barriers that the physicians are worried about like work overload, increased medical liability and maintaining data privacy and security. There is a low routine use of email across the practice settings so the physicians might not get to read the email on time. The adoption of physician email has also not been adopted in many areas due to physicians concern like its impact on quality of care.

Information technology when used for the first time almost never works correctly and the best way to us it is by fiddling with it and modifying it until it meets one’s needs. There is no need for letting healthcare applications of IT to lag for a decade or two behind the adoption rate in other industries. The price has been paid by paperwork burdens, unresponsive or delayed decision making and consumer unfriendly healthcare experience. To achieve a more responsive, intelligent and a safer health system is by raising a collective expectations of how the health system performs. It is not enough just to have the technology but the thoughtful application of the new powerful tools. These tools can create a better healthcare experience and improved health.

When it comes to disaster recovery, each healthcare organization chooses their own option depending on the critical nature of the benefit/cost and the application. Most hospital prefer to build their own back up centers which comes at a great cost to maintain control and compliance. The data centers seems to be overwhelmed with data which is more than the hospital data centers can hold. This brings the option of outsourcing this work to third-party data centers. They have advantages such as advanced physical security, cost savings and compliance.

When looking for data center hosting companies, healthcare organizations should consider several factors. First, the company should be compliant to the HIPAA security requirements. There should also be trained personnel on the security and protection of Ephi. Data centers should prioritize on security by providing multiple layers of physical security such as mantraps, biometrics, and video monitoring. There is a need for a comprehensive data recovery strategy due to technological, regulatory, and environmental factors. The risks and consequences of failing to have plans in place to recover data in case of a cyber-attack or natural disaster is too great to ignore.

To counter cyber-attack there are precautions that should be put in place to ensure that the health data is safe and secure. The first step is having a strong password and make sure that it is changed regularly. The machines used should also be installed with anti-virus software which should always be kept up to date. Without this, data might be destroyed or stolen giving the attackers control of the machine. Healthcare organizations or third party data centers who transmit health information should control access to protected health information. This prevents anyone who is not cleared to access certain information not to be able to do so. The concerned parties that handle health information should also be prepared for the unexpected. This is done having a sound recovery plan and creating backups.

Ammenwerth, E., Gräber, S., Herrmann, G., Bürkle, T., & König, J. (2003). Evaluation of health information systems—problems and challenges. International journal of medical informatics, 71(2), 125-135.
Armstrong, M. P., Rushton, G., & Zimmerman, D. L. (1999). Geographically masking health data to preserve confidentiality. Statistics in medicine, 18(5), 497-525.
Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. (2003). HIPAA privacy rule and public health. Guidance from CDC and the US Department of Health and Human Services. MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52(Suppl. 1), 1-17.
Clarke, M., Bogia, D., Hassing, K., Steubesand, L., Chan, T., & Ayyagari, D. (2007, August). Developing a standard for personal health devices based on 11073. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2007. EMBS 2007. 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE (pp. 6174-6176). IEEE.
Eisenman, D. P., Cordasco, K. M., Asch, S., Golden, J. F., & Glik, D. (2007). Disaster planning and risk communication with vulnerable communities: lessons from Hurricane Katrina. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Supplement_1), S109-S115.
Graschew, G., Roelofs, T. A., Rakowsky, S., Schlag, P. M., Heinzlreiter, P., Kranzlmuller, D., & Volkert, J. (2006). Virtual Hospital and Digital Medicine-Why is the GRID needed?. Studies in health technology and informatics, 120, 295.
Hobbs, J., Wald, J., Jagannath, Y. S., Kittler, A., Pizziferri, L., Volk, L. A., ... & Bates, D. W. (2003). Opportunities to enhance patient and physician e-mail contact. International journal of medical informatics, 70(1), 1-9.
Kizer, K. W. (2001). Establishing health care performance standards in an era of consumerism. Jama, 286(10), 1213-1217.Rosen, P., & Kwoh, C. K. (2007). Patient-physician e-mail: an opportunity to transform pediatric health care delivery. Pediatrics, 120(4), 701-706.

Shou, D. (2012). Ethical considerations of sharing data for cybersecurity research. In Financial Cryptography and Data Security (pp. 169-177). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
West, D. M., & Miller, E. A. (2009). Digital medicine: Health care in the Internet era (p. 4). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

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LG Company Financial Analysis

LG Company Financial Analysis - 4.0 out of 5 based on 1 review
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The company has been ventured in the electronic world that has facilitated by the increased number of customers in the market. This had been an ample time for the company’s operations to be strategically arranged and formulated to ensure that they are effective and efficiently undertaken once the company started its operations .This helped the company in the production of quality products that do not disappoint the consumers thus earning their loyalty.

The company has numerous competitors in the electronic market such as the mobile phone companies such as Samsung, Nokia, Apple, Blackberry, HTC, Alcatel, Sony, Motorola, Tecno mobiles among others. The competitors are at a rise as they also try to achieve the market dominance with their services and products. On the other hand in the face of appliances especially the home use appliances, such companies as Samsung, Armco, Phillips, and Sony among others are also in the move to dominate in the market. This poses a threat to the company of losing its dominance in the market (Grant, 2007).

The company’s financial statements are stated below indicating the trends in the financial status of the company. The trends are clearly shown in the statement of financial statements as well as in the income statement.




Dec 31

Dec 31

Dec 31









Cost Of Goods Sold








Selling General & Admin Expenses, Total




R&D Expenses




Depreciation & Amortization, Total




Other Operating Expenses












Interest Expense




Interest And Investment Income








Income (Loss) On Equity Investments




Currency Exchange Gains (Loss)




Other Non-Operating Income (Expenses)








Impairment Of Goodwill




Gain (Loss) On Sale Of Investments




Gain (Loss) On Sale Of Assets




Other Unusual Items, Total








Income Tax Expense




Minority Interest In Earnings




Earnings From Continuing Operations

















Balance Sheet                                   






Current assets




Non-current assets




Total assets




Current liabilities




Non-current liabilities




Total liabilities




Equity attributable to owners of the parent




Non-controlling interests




Total equity





With the company’s trend in the profitability, the trend shows that the company has been making profits throughout the venture. This is due to the increased products and services diversification thus leading to the client satisfaction. As the clients get satisfied, they tend to back to the company for the services thus earning their loyalty (Bhadur, 2008). From the graphs below, the profitability within the years can be clearly seen to be rising with from one tear to the other.

The changes in the profitability are due to the changes in the demand for the company’s products. Though there is the increased competition, the company has been dealing with the trend in a much more comprehensive way to achieve the competitive advantage over the competitors (Hill, 2013). During the years, the operational strategies of the company have been improved thus improving the overall income for the company in the years.

Ratios for the year 2013

Quick ratio = C.A-C.L      74,529-43,380   = 0.7180

                        C.L                 43,380

Current ratio = C.A                     74,529   = 1.7180

                          C.L                     43,380

Operating income margin = Operating income   36,785,013.0   = 0.2672

                                                  Net sales              137,696,309        


Ratios for the year 2012

Quick ratio = C.A-C.L      7,453-43,380   = -0.8282

                        C.L                 43,380

Current ratio = C.A                     7453   = 0.1718

                          C.L                     43,380

Operating income margin = Operating income   29,049,338 = 0.2294

                                                  Net sales              126,651,931

Having clearly done the valuations and attached the spreadsheets, however, the profitability of the company is observed to be rising from year to year. This has been attributed by the various factors and underatakings of the company (Levine, 2002). The number of share has also increased to 1563 thus possing an increase in the company’s capital. The EPS and other ratios has been calculated and clearly recorded in the statements. They has been changing with time from the economic status of the country.


Following the debt ratio, the pay back period of the debts ought to be checked for an effective and favorable debt ration. The average collection period should also be considered. The company’s assets has aslo increased showing an improvemet on the diversification of the various fields in the investments of the company. 


Bhadur, R. (2008). Production and operation management. Jaipur, India: Book Enclave.

Grant, T. (2007). International directory of company histories. Chicago: St. James Press.

Hill, K. (2013). International directory of company histories. Vol. 139. Detroit, Mich.: St. James Press.

Levine, H. A. (2002). Practical project management tips, tactics, and tools. New York: J. Wiley.

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