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Introduction

Leaders in management positions play significant roles in the success or failure of the companies they lead. They can adopt right or wrong system of management, which affect the leadership and smooth running of the company. Good managers are exemplary leaders and should adopt the right style of management and leadership. This can fit specific situations and employees or followers of a management style. Not all styles are applicable universally to varied situations. Some management styles are applicable in one situation and effective but may fail in a different setup. This paper looks at different management styles in healthcare institutions or facilities. Methods and styles for managing situations in hospitals vary and depend on the prevailing situation and levels of service provision, set targets, and goals of the service.

Authoritative management style

The main aim of the management styles in healthcare organizations strives to provide effective healthcare services that satisfy patients and employees. In any system of management, it is extremely hard to satisfy both parties at the same time. In authoritative form of management, the leadership strives and aims to mobilize and drive the employees to achieve a common visionary objective (Gomez, Luis, David, and Robert 2008). This is where the leadership is not inclusive in key decision-making process. Not all the stakeholders take part in decision-making process and the leadership solely decides on working processes and instructions. The decisions and instructions in this case are final and not subject to challenge by staff or employees. It resembles a form of dictatorship system of leadership (Blake and Mouton 1999). Employees implement important decisions by the management whether it pleases them or not. An example is the change of working shifts by managers in patient care system. In this case, nurses equally work either day or night shifts as the chief nurse officer solely decides on any shift. This is effective and ideal in ensuring that all employees have fair and equal chances to work. It builds awareness of duty expectations at different scheduled period among employees without manipulation or favoritism.

This system is ideal for situations where change in the environment is common. In this form of management, there is a clear distinction between the followers and the leaders (Montana and Bruce 2008). The distinction is clear in the process where the leader is a decision maker and the follower implements the decisions by the authority. Authoritative management style reduces the chances and rates of failures in the implementation of new approaches and techniques or even the process of re-engineering a diagnostic process (McKee and Carlson 1999). The leadership in this management style ought to be open to adapt the approaches that match the expectations and needs of new discoveries in healthcare provision. These new discoveries are the primary objectives and focus of most successful organizations.

Most leaders and authorities perceive this style as an efficient style for managing the present changes in healthcare systems. This is because of continuous dynamic innovations and discoveries in healthcare systems. It is an immensely positive and strong form of leadership and management to adapt and accommodate new changes. This is because of the common attribute in healthcare organizations where the staff needs a form of coercion to maintain focus and remain visionary. Employees then undertake their responsibilities effectively (Charlene 2011). For example, in fostering time management, clocking in and out machines help employees to adhere to their schedules and shifts at work. It is the best approach and example to enhance adherence and time management to boost punctuality, efficiency, and complaints.

Pacesetting management style

Leaders in this approach form the basis and foundation of success in the style that employees follow. This form has the basis of high standards set by the management or leadership as examples. The employees or staff know and understand what the leadership expect from them (Kickul and Neuman 2000). In pacesetting style, leaders harbor the drive and urge to initiate and consequently achieve goals in healthcare management. This method is efficient for quick and effective results from a team of competent and motivated individuals. It is best applicable in pharmaceutical companies on sales and marketing of drugs. Management leads by example. It is successful in pharmaceutical sales because the sales person copy motivation from the management that set high standards. Leadership instills the drive to achieve goals. The goals may include efficiency in drug regiment use (Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee 2004). The method suits sales department because numbers drive the managers to deliver. It quantifies outcomes, which are key determinants of success in management plans and objectives.

Pacesetting management style is successful when the team members are competent and harbor motivation by the leadership. This enables the employees to complete the duties or tasks set forth by their managers (Van and Ahuja 2010). Nevertheless, the system may experience some forms of downfall because members work differently within the team or workforce. The standards set may overwhelm the employees because the targets are high. The management sets high standards and targets may overwork the capabilities of team members due to pressure to meet these standards.

The management style here stresses on the standards and changes rather than the existing and most effective standards. There is continued pressure to achieve the targets from the team. Success in this case is management and leaders attribute who lead and motivate competent talents in a team. There is a disadvantage in this method of leadership because of continuous obsession in focusing on set standards. It can result to careless errors from fatigue (Kotter and Dan 51). Continuous fatigue on standards of healthcare is a discouraging factor that consequently leads to disintegration of the team or employees. Even the pace-setting manager is subject to disorientation because he or she is the hardest working team leader setting examples and standards. Pacesetting management style is challenging because of situations that may result to resentment and occurrence of minor errors. It is important when implementing changes like the adoption and use of a certain regiment of a drug to counter any complication.

Democratic management style

Democratic management style proves to be effective in most but not all situations of leadership in organizations. The style of management is inclusive because it encourages the employees and team members to be part of team in decision-making process. It is the most participatory style of management which puts into consideration the interests and views of all the stakeholders in the process of decision making (Judge, Bono, Ilies, Gerhardt 2002). The employees or staff has the ability to influence the decision-making processes and the outcomes of the processes in turn. For example the inclusion of the laboratory technicians in equipment purchasing and use. This ensures the availability of adequate information and satisfaction in using the new equipment (Robbins and Coulter 2005). It is important to involve the technicians because they are the team that would use the equipment and determines the success or failure of the new equipment utility.

In this style of management, there is uniform and smooth flow of information sharing constantly in both forward and backward manner. Democratic management style is effective where there is an adequate and proper channel of communication. The efforts and contributions of the employees are important in the decision-making process (Tittemore 2003). With the enhanced availability of adequate communication channels, the management eases in coordinating the efforts of the employees in a transparent and consistent basis (Ad de, Michael and Lisa 2001). The employees can forward their concerns and contributions effectively. Most effective, modern institutions and organizations use his method because it is a positive in promoting open teamwork. It builds a sense of teamwork because of the principle of inclusiveness and concern on the views of others regardless of the levels and scope of work. Democratic management is an important and motivating style of leadership.

It builds the basis that enhances greatest realization of success in implementation of a new procedure or implementation of a new system of healthcare procedure. For example, changes in the procedure of developing and implementing the medical benefit scheme for employees. This method is essential in the medical cover and scheme. This is because it deals with health and financial status of the whole team (Laudon and Laudon 2007). This allows the achievement of high success right from development of the scheme, implementation stages, and operational continuity of a program. This sense and success of teamwork and togetherness at all stages enhances integration and meeting set targets.

Chances of success in any new procedure or activity, in democratic style of management are high. This is because both those planning and implementing changes understand their roles in entire process because of continuous joint consultation and inclusion in decision-making processes. Ideas flow and consultation continues freely between the workers and managers of any organizations (Spencer 1998). The critics of this management style argue that it is a time wasting style of management leadership. This is because of the time in during consultation and decision-making to arrive at a consensus.

Conclusion

Management or leadership styles vary according to situations and variance of organizations or companies. A fundamental area setup and organization determines the success or failure of any style of management. Every position of individuals in an organization is vital because of the pertinent roles of each like from decision-making, implementation, and sustainability of a procedure. This needs proper focus and motivation of team leaders and followers. It is important to change the style periodically according to the prevailing conditions because no one specific method can last forever or otherwise may result in failure of an organization or company. Managers have to be dynamic and aware of changes occurring in a given work industry.

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