The United States civil war was in between 1861 and 1865. The war was between the Northern and the southern states that had by then formed the Confederacy after ceding the Union. It is believed that the war that broke in the Southern Union was also known as war for the southern independence, the war of succession as well as the war for the Rebellion. Though criticized widely the war is considerable accepted. With its name, the war was not all about the class struggle but a sectional fight based on political, psychological, and social as well as economic aspects that the historians did not agree upon themselves.
These aspects have been categorized in the William H. Seward’s words of irrepressible conflicts. In another perspective view, the Civil war was also viewed as a criminal act that was unnecessary blood shedding that was as a result of careless and much egotistical politicians in the country. Both ideological views did accept the fact that the existed a situation in the country that was considered as unfathomable by the diplomatic means within the country.
During the days, the American Revolution enhanced the drafting of the constitution to try and solve the grievances among the two sided the North and the South part. The differences that existed between the North and South in the constitution were drafted and their common interests effectively taken care of. In the 19th century, the two parts had completely continued to practice sectionalism with the South part being specialized in the agricultural activity. The economy and the social life of the region were greatly based on plantation and slavery.
These two dependent sections produce lot of staples such cotton which is the southern source of income. With the Northern side, it's own its own resources in the agricultural sector that is more economically advanced and that has greatly led to the industrial growth and development.
Causes of the United States civil war
The Missouri Compromise
The United States civil war was brought by various factors in the country. Among them are; the hostility grew after the 1820, the Missouri Compromise was taken as a permanent solution for the issues that had emerged due to the federal territories extension and the prohibition of the slavery during the period in the west. Tariffs difficulties arose that resulted to the nullification of the South Carolina and John C. Calhoun and the internal improvements arose troubles with the territorial issue being the largest issue.
In 1830s, the abolitionists increased in the North since there were difficulties in adapting slavery in most of the lands in the territories. With this, the South part became much eager in maintaining its position as an equal part in the union. The North part would be declared a free state with the continued abolition of the slavery. The Southerners continued to strongly reinforce the seizure of Texas and the Mexican War and even disconcerted for the certification of slavery of Cuba.
The Compromise of the 1850
In 1850, the compromise marked the termination of the compromising era. Henry Clay and Daniel Webster’s deaths left no leader in the national stature with only the sectional spokesmen such as Salmon P. Chase and W. H Sumner in the North, Robert Toombs and Jefferson Davis in the South. In 1853, the Kansas Nebraska Act first scuffle for hemorrhage resorted to shooting. Many people from the South were always excited of the Northerners abolitionist John Brown actions and the dynamic pro slavery statements of one of the fire-eaters in the Southern part called William L. Yancey.
The Election of 1860
In between 1860 and 1861 the United States separated, this can be attributed to the activities that had taken place in the earlier years within the country. Before 1850s, there had already been a gradual disequilibrium in the political sector of the country. The Northern part had been joining the antislavery Republican Party as the politicians from the Southern part got the fear of their place in the union for the slavery’s future. The positions in the union hardened as the Republicans asserted the majority rule in the union thus the Slaveholders had an increased threat from the Republicans on their way of life as well as their abolitionist. This was to entail both the whites and the blacks who supported the slaveholders thus soughing to end the slavery.
The Territorial Crisis and the United States Constitution
This separation resulted to the large split of the both parts; most of the Southern joined the Democratic Party that was one of the few remaining parties nationwide. The Republican Party was purely for the Northerners from the Free-soil Party and the Liberty party. The party was strictly based from the North and only for those with than Northern phenomenon. In 1860, Abraham Lincoln who was a Republican candidate was elected into the presidential position on the basis of the stoppage of slavery from extending to the other areas within the Southern part. He had defeated three candidates John C. Breckinridge (Southern Democrat), Stephen A. Douglas (Northern Democrat), and John Bell of the Constitutional Union party.
With the win by Lincoln, it was a clear indication of South Carolina’s succession (Dec. 20, 1860). This also showed that the state was, however, followed by other states such as Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Florida. The quest for the federal resources within the states became the issue. The federal property had become very important especially with the forts located in the Charleston harbor. The by then outgoing president called James Buchanan who was from the Northern Democrat was, however, trucking the southerners pro slavery section of the party. Averting a war was among his attempts as well as pursuing a vacillating progression.
The question regarding the forts remained unsettled despite the inauguration of Lincoln as the sitting president. However, there had been great efforts to reunite the two sections. Lincoln was able to hold Sumter through his resolving efforts. In April 12, 1861, a confederation was held shelling the Sumter Fort in the South Carolina. This was to provoke Lincoln to call at about 75,000 volunteers from all over the states to stop the rebellion and maintain their Union by the use of excessive power. The states affected were those that had refused to withdraw slavery such as Tennessee, Virginia, Arkansas, and North Carolina and they come to understand that they could not have escaped the war.
With this, the line had been clearly drawn deciding on those who would save the movement as well as those who would leave it. The Confederacy was not predestined to win but, however, the armies from the Southern had the advantage of having their fights in lines on the interior. Their military also had an advantage in that it had the basic knowledge from the areas historical events of the United States before 1860s. With the Confederate long coastlines of about 3500miles, the president of Confederate, Jefferson Davis was hoping to receive foreign aid as is seemed to defy obstruction.
Economic value of slavery to the South
The United militias were fighting aiming to attain an independent and distinct country that would be based on their own perception that they regarded as Southern institutions, which its chief was slavery’s institution. In the early period of 1961, the Fort Sumter was destroyed by the rebels as they fired it on the entrance to Charleston harbor. In the United States history, this would be designated as the bloodiest war but, unfortunately, there were no victims. Bombardment, Maj. Robert Anderson surrendered the command he has of about 85 soldiers to about 5,500 troops from the Confederate under P.G.T. Beauregard. In a period of about one week following the surrender, some more states left the Southern union and joined the Confederacy among them being Tennessee, Arkansas, North Carolina and Virginia.
Following the emergence of the war in the land, 75,000 soldiers were called by President Lincoln to serve for a period not exceeding three months. The president proclaimed a naval blockade that belonged to the states that had joined the confederacy. The amount of $2 million was directed to be allocated for the troops rising by the president and he also deferred the writ of habeas corpus. This suspension started in the East Coast and was later spread to the other parts of the country. From the troops figure that been previously called of 100,000 militias it was now increased to 400,000 for at least a period of six months.
Consequences of the War
Loss of lives
With the civil war lasting for four years, many people lost their lives while more than a million United States were being injured. Much capital was used to stop as well as to facilitate the war thus down seizing the United States economic stability. Do to no economic stability due to the war, the United States would find it less worth investing over the period of the four years thus dragging behind in terms of economic growth and development. A United States historian called Philip Paladin wrote “No war… That has enduring influences in the United States civil war.
The writing influenced the three amendments of the constitution; election of slight five presidents. This had a total negative impact on the economic status as well as the social lives of the citizens all over the country. Over 4,000,000 people were freed from slavery while over 3,000,000 men were swept into the militia service. The negative impacts are always and highly attributed to the Southern part while us it totals affected the whole country at large. Pennsylvania was the highly affected state as it is a large state in the border. The state contributed to more than 10 percent of all the three million militia men as well as the essential raw materials and all the manufacturing that was taking place during the civil war.
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