(Seeds used are from the Family Solanaceae and Brassicaceae)
This experiment was conducted at home and aimed at illustrating the effects of salinity in our community. Seed germination in highly concentrated salt solution in the soil is crucial for endurance and survival of plant species. The experiment examined the effects of different concentration of Sodium chloride on germination of seeds from the family Brassicaceae and Solanaceae. The actual seeds used includes, Capsicum annum, Brassica tolerance, Sinapis Alba and Solanum lycopersicum. In this experiment, I aimed at determining the salt concentration that would not interfere with seed germination. These sodium chloride concentration from 200,400,600 and 800 mm. The experiment results indicate showed that all the seeds germinated only from the lowest concentration of 200 mm. Nevertheless, after I had distilled water was added to the salty water, the seeds began germinating. Although, the seeds from the S.alba still refused to germinate. Though, after addition of gibberellic acid which boosts germination all the C. annum seeds germinated in large numbers, unlike other plant seeds used in the experiment (Ahmad, 34).
In agricultural production, soil salinity has been a major contributing factor to soil degradation. Salinity inhibits the plant germination due to ionic and osmotic effects. Though, different plant species and families have developed coping mechanisms to defeat this vice. Osmotic potential reduction in salinity soils is, as a result, of inorganic ions in the soil (Ahmad, 12). Such inorganic ions in the soil are believed to be Sodium ions, chlorine ions and potassium ions. Salt tolerance and osmotic regulation relation are not always clear according to various authors though it’s believed that osmotic adjustment is evident. The osmotic adjustment is always involved in plant genotype salt tolerance.
Plant families have a variation in tolerance on salinity of the soils. The variation is dependent on the plant species; plants may have a high tolerance on high or low soil salinity. In most case, high salinity in the soils affects the germination process in the seeds. It can be defined as a source of drought or hunger to a given plant. Salinity prevents root performance as it reduces the osmotic activity of the roots that help the root's uptakes nutrients and water from a high concentration area. In such cases, high salinity in the soil affects the uptake of nutrients and water into the plant roots (Ahmad, 87).
Study have found out that perennial plant species have a high capacity than annual plants to handle salinity. High concentration of salinity in the soils can have toxically harmful effects to the plants due to the salts found in the soil. High salt concentration in the soils upset the ability of soil to take up balanced amount of nutrients that would promote healthy growth. From a global viewpoint, soil salinity has been a major challenge in agricultural productivity. However, different scientists and crop science experts have worked tirelessly in an effort to reduce the amount of sodium chloride contained on the plant cells (Ahmad, 45).
In plant life history, germination acts as the foundation of the life success. Seeds that are capable of germinating in highly concentrated salt solutions have a hyper importance on the family perpetuation and survival in a given environment. Plants germination in saline habits occurs after high precipitation, aiming at reducing the amount of salinity in the soil. Some plant families have to remain quiescent in the soil seed bank till the amount of salinity in the soil is reduced to a level favorable for the seed to germinate. Such situation occurs when the given researcher needs to colonize a given environment using particular plant species.
Salinity mainly affects and reduce the percentage germination rate and also lowers the onset of a given germination. The effects of salinity on germination can be modified or reduced by use of other environmental factors to counter the effects, such environmental factors may include light and temperature. It is believed that salinity in the soil affects the germination process by influencing the osmotic components available that are sodium and chlorine ions (Ahmad, 23).
In this experiment, the effect and influence of various concentration of sodium chloride on seed germination were examined on the four plant species from the family Brassicaceae and Solanaceae. Previously, it was recognized seeds of Capsicum annum, Brassica tolerance, Sinapis Alba and Solanum lycopersicum can germinate in the presence of Sodium chloride of a given percentage. In this experiment, I wanted to know the concentrations of salinity that would interfere the germination process in a given plant seeds.
Sodium chloride (Common salt) is a chemical compound used by human in their day to day survival in their environment. Too much intake of salt may have dangerous effects on the human as well as the plants. So if seeds are placed in a salty condition, they will be completely damaged by the toxic effects and hamper the germination process. Furthermore, if the seed does not germinate in a salt solution, there is a likely possibility that it will have been mutated of destroyed by the nature of the toxic effect of concentrated salt solution.
Materials and Methods.
I bought the seeds of Solanum lycopersicum, Sinapis Alba, capsicum annum and brassica tolerance from an agricultural outlet pharmacy. The seeds are usually in bags and are ready for sowing. About 15 seeds of each plant species were placed in clean petri dishes. The petri dish has the average diameter of six centimeter. A two millimeter of NaCI or distilled water is added to the seeds plus a fungicide to help the seeds from attack by the fungal infections. The seeds were placed for germination in the dark at a temperature of 25°c.
The number of the germinated seed were determined after every two days from the day the experiment kicked. After two weeks, I washed the seeds with distilled water and added gibberellic acid that would help boost the germination process. I placed the seeds back to the dark place in the room temperature. After adding the germination booster, I monitored the percentage germination twice. The full germination process was countered for twenty days. The experiment was done three times to ensure clear and accurate results
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