Sample research paper on Cloning Human Beings

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Scientists describe cloning as the creation of an identical copy of something else, this word is derived from the Greek language, meaning twig (Ermark 39). On the other hand, cloning is defined as the process of genetically creating any kind of an identical copy of the already existing human (Ermark 39).  For many years, scientists have tried all ways possible to clone human being, as has been the case to other mammalian species such as horses, cats, sheep and monkey. This paper will discuss the opposition that human cloning has faced, and develop supportive arguments to justify the concept of human cloning.

The process of cloning involves the integration of DNA from a single cell that is taken from an ovary of a mammary cell. These cells then grow from the fused state into an embryo which is then implanted to the womb; it later develops into a genetically identical organism (Kankanala 172). A sheep by the name Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned in 1996 and was cloned through the process known as somatic cell nuclear transfer. There were plans to ban the process of cloning human beings in the US in 1998, after the introduction of bills in the 105th congress. These bills faced opposition from medical organizations and scientists and were not enacted.

Human beings are the most complex organisms to be cloned; this is because of their genetic cells duplication.  The process of a human being cloning has faced ethical and religious challenges since its inception in 1952. Over the years, many religious leaders have opposed the concept of human cloning because they believe that God does not approve it (MacKinnon 7).  Over time, critics of human cloning have also argued that the cloning process is an evil as it interferes with nature’s plan. Consequently, opponents of this method also argue that, through human cloning, there is the limitation of diversity that comes from the aspect of the uniqueness that is evident in every human being.

Many people also consider human cloning as ethically reprehensible; this is because of the risks that might occur in family relations and psychological aspects of the child who has gone through the process of cloning.  A majority of those who oppose the concept of human cloning think that it is a threat to human beings towards the standard spousal relationship. There is also an argument that instead of focusing more on human cloning, it would be better to deal with existing human beings, particularly the poor and the disabled.

Opponents of human cloning have also argued that many couples use this form to cheat death, as many may use this procedure to think that they have replaced their dead child. They also assert that many of those, who propose the idea of human cloning want to produce human beings, who will be used as slaves. Furthermore, they argue that through this process, scientists just want to create mere playthings also to satisfy their whims or ego. Bodies such as World Health Organization have also opposed this process and have termed it as a violation of fundamental human rights and the act of offending human rights (Ashcroff, Dawson and Draper 761).

Those opposing human cloning also argue that any child produced through this process may lack originality; this is because of been similar to other human being who has lived before. They also argue that any product of human cloning will be extremely questionable, and because of this they argue that cloning a child would be unethical. Lineage has also been used by opponents of human cloning; they believe that it will give children who have been cloned a complex lineage.  Others still believe that human cloning will make its products feel like a form of designed products (Johnson 2020).

A majority of those opposing the process of cloning argue that, human clones will threaten the survival of human survival at large. They believe that a human clone will be more superior because of the combination of the genetic and other engineering techniques. They further argue that human beings who will be an outcome of the process of cloning will overpopulate the earth (Macintosh 197). Opponents of human cloning also argue that human clones will also reduce genetic diversity also overwhelm normal human beings with superiority.  Because of these factors, many have insisted that governments should by all means enact laws to govern and limit the number of children, who might be conceived through the process of sexual or asexual reproduction.

Those opposing any form of human cloning also believe that cloning is unsafe; according to them the technology used would endanger egg donor’s health and the gestational mothers. Because of this, they believe that many fetus and embryos will in turn be lost during this process and if they survive they would suffer from extremely serious birth defects. They also claim that through the process of human cloning, those who are proposing it might hypothesize and promote physical dangers to children produced and their mothers. Those objecting human cloning also associate it with physical safety and other effects that are usually associated with social values. They believe that, in the long run, those who will be produced as human clones will automatically be treated as eugenics (Pence 87).

Various Governments were initially opposed to the concept of human cloning, for example, the US government set an ethical inquiry to look into this matter. This inquiry came up with tight measures to regulate any mechanism that could effectively reduce production of clone children from embryos that were set aside for research. This inquiry also opposed any form of cloning that seemed to allow biomedical research. Because of these tight measures taken by various governments, embryos were seen as unnatural resources. The US government also set statutory prohibition that prohibited any transfer of a cloned embryo to a woman uterus. To make sure that these laws were adhered to, heavy penalties were set aside for those who would contemplate cloning in order to produce children

Despite these challenges that human cloning has faced, there are several reasons that support the necessity of this process. For instance, human cloning could help couples who are infertile, lesbian or gay and want to have children who are genetically related to them. This process could also favor parents who want to replace their dead baby or children killed in an accident or through natural causes. Scientists have further argued that through this process it is easy to help couples who have recessive lethal gene who would like to bear children (Ashcroff, Dawson and Draper 761).  The process of human cloning would also be useful to a wife who wishes to have a biological offspring from her dying husband.

A number of the situations mentioned above would use the process of human cloning to satisfy wishes of their desires and have their own genetically related offspring despite facing various challenges. There are still various advantages that come with human cloning I will mention one after another and give the importance of human cloning. The first one is the supply of tissue and donor organs, over the years there have been limited supply of fundamental human body organs. These have caused avoidable deaths that are caused by limitations of these organs and exorbitant cost that comes with their transplantations and donations. Human cloning would be a solution to this prolonged problem that has faced millions of patients. Through cloning vital organs such as the heart, kidney, liver and lung would be readily available for patients (Jornades 97).  Scientist and medical professionals are in agreement that organs from cloned human being could be of better quality than the readily available organs.

Another advantage that would come with human cloning is the elimination of the donor rejection; this is because many of the patients who have ended up having organ donors still have the challenge of their bodies resisting the already donated organs. Through the process of human cloning, this will be a thing of the past, because measures will be set to make sure that organs are genetically matched in order to match the organs of the recipient (Ermark 44). This will further eliminate the waiting process of a recipient organ donor and the transplantation. It will also make sure that no one will have to survive with one kidney because of donating the other one to an ailing patient.

Another outstanding advantage that would come with human cloning would be the regeneration of the damaged tissues. Medical experts have for years been faced with the challenges of regenerating body tissues due to the problems that come from recipient rejection. Through a human being cloning, scientists believe that transferring stem cells that have been genetically created would be a solution to damaged cells (Johnson 2007). They argue that through human cloning, there will be a minimization of tissue rejections that are majorly experienced by the recipients.

The process of a human being cloning will also eradicate genetic diseases, it is estimated that a greater percentage of patients worldwide have diseases that are genetically inherited from their former generations. Scientists have proved that through human cloning, they will study many genetic diseases and also put in place novel therapies to prevent or curb such diseases. Medical practitioners believe that the human embryonic stem cells hold the extensive information that is meant to understand and treat chronic diseases (Bioethics 1). In this aspect, human cloning will help in doing further biomedical research, in addition to children production.

Human cloning will also help in resolving diseases that have for decades remained to be untreatable at their later stages, these diseases include; cancer, diabetes and Parkinson’s diseases. Scientists in the medical field have suggested cloning as the cure for these diseases; they argue that through human cloning, they will come up with new therapies for these diseases. They believe that there are types of stem cells that can be transplanted into a patient and get rid of these incurables (Kankanala 177).

I am in support of human cloning despite opposition from religious and governmental institution.  This is because there several advantages that would come with this provision, for instance doctors and scientists will have knowledge that will help in improving and understanding treatments for diseases that are derived in the human embryo.  This process will also provide research that will enhance greater potential in medical techniques. I also support human cloning because of the reproductive purposes which remain to be free of constraints from any quota (Johnson 2018).  I am in support of human cloning because even the opponents of this process agree that it will bring advancement to biomedical and therefore, relieve human beings from suffering.

A certain percentage of individuals in the world today lack germ cell because of severe infertility; because of these the process of cloning people will make them have a genetic link. Scientists also believe that, through the process of human cloning, it will be easier to reverse aging in human beings. They also argue that through cloning, it will be possible for doctors to reverse heart attacks and further replace damaged heart cells with healthy ones. This will indeed save many patients who suffer from heart diseases which are the number one killers in the USA and other developed countries.

Through human cloning, it will be possible to produce bones, cartilages and fats; this will mean an end to cosmetic procedures that are practiced today in order to have various implants such as silicon breasts implants. Human cloning will also make the term ‘amputated’ remain in English dictionaries, because through this process, it will be possible to regenerate the limbs or legs of the amputees. Research has shown that human beings carry an average of eight defective genes which normally cause sickness, through human cloning it will be possible to reduce or totally do away with these genes.

Having mentioned the advantages that are associated with human cloning, it will be irrelevant to violate any process of humans being cloning (Meleo 53). The opponents of this process have claimed that human cloning will bring psychological harms, but these claims are only speculative. Several governments have been intervening and creating bills that seem to fight human cloning, but this has in itself sounded controversial, because they falsify the whole process of cloning.  Proponents of this process do not believe that human cloning is a form of lowering human beings dignity as claimed by the opponents. It rather allows and gives the scientists and medical practitioners the provision of replacing a human being DNA donor.

It will not be appropriate to assume that the process of cloning will produce children who have genomes; this is because there is no medical prove. Opponents of this process have seriously misunderstood the biology that is behind the process of human cloning, and because of these they have not given their thoughts on the products of cloning. It is noteworthy to mention that, through the process of cloning in other organisms, it has become evident that it has allowed the ever growing organisms that are genetically modified. This has helped scientists and medical practitioners to have a full share in medical research.

The main aim of cloning according to scientist is to help study the cell, in this aspect this process helps in showing how cells normally age, how they differentiate, how they multiply and sometimes how they rejuvenate. It is well to understand that through the process of cloning it is not a must to make identical copies, sometimes this is because the uterus and the egg environment also play a vital role (MacKinnon 4). This further proves that opponents of human cloning do not have factual rights to claim that it will represent a previous or existing human being.

Because of the advantages that seem to be associated with human cloning, various governments have set legislative proposals in order to safeguard this process (Lauritizen 206). For instance in the United States of America,  the congress has been working on various bills to ensure that there is the promotion of several issues that are related to human cloning. Plans are also underway, to make sure that human cloning resolves matters such as genetic selections and other psychological problems that normally ensue.

In terms of moral obligation, the process of human cloning is meant to outline the autonomous decisions that can prevent the genetic makeup to withstand any form of serious diseases and disabilities. Opponents of this process do not have any moral obligation of condemning it because they do not have reliable information that pertains to this matter.

Although the mention of human cloning has elicited many reactions from various circles, it is evident that it has a number of advantages. In this paper, we have specified a number of individuals who without doubt could benefit from human cloning. It would not be appropriate to repeat the importance of human cloning, but for the sake of driving some points it would be relevant to summarize in short form the advantages of this process. As earlier mentioned, the main beneficiaries of this process would be parents who are unable to bore their own children, due to natural factors such as infertility.  This paper has also mentioned another group of individuals who would benefit from human cloning; they include those who have various genetic diseases, gays and lesbians.

Human cloning in the early 1990s was treated as an act of impunity, but later on, Dolly the sheep was cloned. This fact led to scientists announcing the breakthrough they were intending to pursue in cloning human beings, but it was eventually faced with various challenges that included proposed bans.

Human cloning can help a vast deal if well understood; through it human beings can have tangible solutions to various problems that they face today. It is vital for the opponents and the proponents of this process to forge a way forward. This is because this process may play a pivotal role in obtaining genetic information that will help in curing and minimizing diseases and disorders.

In conclusion, it would be inhuman to turn a blind eye to those who are facing premature death because of failure to endorse biomedical research.  By this, I mean that we are supposed to advance in basic research in order that certain curable diseases can be prevented and cured.  In this paper, we have seen that scientists have played a crucial role in setting moral boundary on various human subjects (Biothics 169). In this paper too, we have found that there are various opponents who are against human cloning due to various reasons, on the other hand, there are also proponents of those who wish to advance further in biomedical research. In this aspect, I am in full support of human cloning because of the importance it holds in health matters.

In conclusion, it is evident that many forms of discussions relating to genetic technologies have for decades been presented in predictive ways in terms of genetic analysis.  There are indeed, various advantages that are associated with human cloning; throughout this paper we have seen that it is the only solution to treating and resolving diseases that have for decades remained to be untreatable. Scientists in the medical field have also recommended human cloning as the best way to increase the number of vital organs and tissues. As earlier stated there are several proves that recommend human  cloning, because through it, scientists and medics might be able to study many genetic diseases and find curable measures for them.

Works cited

Ashcroft, , Richard E., Angus Dawson, and Heather Draper. "Ethics and Medical publishing." Principles of health care ethics. 2nd ed. New Jersey, USA: John Wiley and Son, 2007. 761. Print

Ermak, Gennady , and . "Human Cloning" Modern Science & Future Medicine. California, USA: Gennady Ermak, 2008. 39. Print.

Kankanala, Kalyan C. "Human Cloning." genetic patent law and strategy. Noida, India: Manupatra, 2007. 172. Print.

 Macintosh, Kerry L. " Illegal beings: human clones and the law." Anticloning laws violate protection guarantee. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 197. Print.

MacKinnon, Barbara . "introduction." Human Cloning: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. Illinois Press, USA: University of Illinois Press, 2001. 7. Print.