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ABSTRACT

Comprehension of the marketing principles is a key step to effective formulation of a successful marketing strategy. However, there is a need of consideration of some of the factors that may render marketing strategy ineffective. The paper addresses some of these factors in depth, in relation to the television industry. The factors include social, ethical, psychological and political influences. In addition, the interaction between the factors and success of the television industry is highly focused by the paper. The results indicate that these factors have a great impact on the success of the television industry.


INTRODUCTION

According to Dunnett (1990), the television industry has the responsibility of supplying and distributing broadcasting programmes, cable, videocassette recorder (VCR), and satellite. The industry belongs to the category of the public good on the basis that it has traits of non-rivalry and non-exclusion. Non-rivalry depicts that consumers have the potential of consuming similar products with no limitation. The television industry has satisfied this need and the consumers enjoy the services to their maximum. On the other hand, non-exclusion ensures that the service providers have no limitation on who enjoys the services. That is all the people receive services in an equitable manner. Demand and supply form the key to evaluation of the performance of a given industry. In addition, the behavior and conduct of the industry, as well as the structure of the industry act as crucial elements in the analysis process of the industry performance. Television industry focuses on meeting the public interest. The process may have influence from the government or the state of monopoly on supply may hinder attainment of efficiency.

Figure 1: Analytical model for the television industry (Dunnett, 1990).

Basic conditions (Supply and demand)

   Market structure (Product differentiation, vertical integration, and barriers to entry)

Conduct (Research and innovation)


Performance (Allocative and production efficiency)
POLITICAL INFLUENCE

Government policies, in the universe, have a significant influence on the performance, conduct and structure of the television industry, in the respective nations. These policies form conditions that govern the operation process of the television industry. As such, a small dynamic on the policies has a significant effect on the television industry. Government policies dictate the conditions of the operation and ownership of the television industry. The policies also regulate the ownership of the television industry. This may exclude foreigners, political opponents, or telecommunications companies. The suppliers have to remit payments for operating as a supplier, or have to ensure that they attain given standards. Such regulations limit the freedom of operation of the television industry. On the other hand, the regulations act as a measure of protection of the public from substandard services from the television industry.

The government has the power of constraining part of the content that the television industry supplies. This occurs since there are conditions that relate to violence and obscene acts within the television industry. Advertising is a common marketing strategy that may occur through the television industry. Therefore, advertising has to tolerate the established conditions and limits with reference to adherence to the television industry rules and regulations as stipulated in the government policies. The government may also demand that the television industry formulates strategies for ensuring that cultural and political content appears to the public. However, the dissemination of such content to the public depends on the content sensitivity. In addition, the government may demand that education and religious programmes dominate a certain percentage of the television content. These policies of the government on the television industry act as aids of limiting the effectiveness of the television industry to disseminate content of their own choice.

The television industry makes use of one-third of the world expenditure to create programmes. The programs then find a market chain distribution to the world’s television systems. The conglomerates determine the quantity of that the world will watch. This indicates that the government plays a vital role on the operation processes of the television industry. The state control and regulation, as well as intervention of the government through subsidies and taxes, influence the service delivery of the television industry. The political influence of the government on the television industry demands that the strategies formulated for marketing through the television industry follow government policies. As such, comprehension of government policies is a key step to attaining success on the formulated marketing strategy.

CONSUMER DEMAND

Most of the people watch television constantly since the service provision is at a free cost. Other factors held constant, demand of any service or product increases as the price decreases. This depicts that if the price of television watching would go high, fewer consumers would demand the service. However, television watching has an inherent cost for the viewer. This cost arises since the consumer has to sacrifice his or her time to watch television. The cost of the foregone activity establishes the key cost for the viewer. This indicates that television watching is in a perfect competition for time with other activities. The cost is high for an individual who could be earning income while it is low for an individual who is in a state of boredom. Television industry has ventured into innovation of technology and technology advancement that aims at finding new models for the television sets, which have the characteristics decreasing the initial cost of possessing a television set (Rodiek, 2007).

SOCIAL

Dunnett (1990) argues that the television industry carries a big blame of contributing to social problems. Television industry has led to rise of violence in most of the nations. The industry has also led to the development of materialism in the society. These form part of the blame that the society attributes to the television industry. Culture is an inherent characteristic of a given social setting. The television industry has contributed effectively to culture destruction in many nations. An example of culture destruction by the television industry is media imperialism in the United States of America (Dunnett, 1990).

Television industry has developed an inherent characteristic of raising socioeconomic issues. The industry participates effectively on providing advertising services that have the characterization of manipulating and persuading consumers. Advertising leads to development of a need of things since other people have them. Snob effect also results from advertising whereby people want things because other people have not yet managed to posses them. Conspicuous consumption is another evil vice from advertising that makes people consume more in order to fit in a group that is consuming a given product or service. In addition, advertising has the inherent characterization of leading to deprivation effect, creating an irrational expenditure, and encouraging impulse buying among the consumers. Television industry grants people a chance of faux relationship creation through relating television and movie characters as a means of social deprivation. An individual compares the life of the characters to real-life situations and associates himself or herself with the depicted lifestyle.

However, the advertising within the television industry may act as a source of information and entertainment for many people. This occurs since advertising has the characterization of depicting colorful pictures and has inherent humor within it. Persuasive advertising ensures that consumers develop brand loyalty and receive goods at a cheaper cost since the producers’ exploits production economies of scale effectively; this leads to production at a lower unit cost.

With these inherent social factors on both the pros and cons of the society consideration of advertising and television industry, in general, there is a need of articulating the factors on marketing strategy formulation. This involves considering the message content, target population, ability of the consumer to decipher the message and the presentation style of the advert. This will ensure that consumers develop a positive attitude towards the advert rather than a negative attitude.

EDUCATION

The television industry forms one of the most effective tools for education of the young in the society. Some of education benefits from the television industry include development of creative skills, communication skills, and gaining knowledge on other complex world phenomenons. However, television industry has participated effectively in altering social norms. In addition, the television industry has the burden of creating entertainment. These two factors in consideration will ensure that the advertising style adopted is quite educative and entertaining in order to attract a large pool of consumers for the service or product advertised.

ETHICS

Ethical factors play a vital role of acceptance of any marketing strategy adopted by any organization. For the television industry, ethical principles form the key to success and foundation of raising criticism of the services offered by the television industry. The ethical principles have a concern for the quality and content of the material that the television industry avails to the public for watching. The principles also consider the impact of such material getting an access to the public. As such, the television industry needs to formulate an effective strategy of addressing ethical considerations of a given social setting.

Ethical perceptions vary among the individuals, but it is vital for the television industry to understand that not everything that appears as ethical is necessarily legal. However, a close correlation exists between ethics and law. Codes of ethical, as well as ethical guidelines, find an establishment in order to aid in making decisions. This acts as an effective means of adhering to the established ethical principles and paying attention to human rights. As such, television industry needs to adhere to the established ethical principles in order to attain the mission and both short-term and long-term goals.

PSYCHOLOGICAL

Children present a unique characteristic of being active learners. In this, whatever children hear or see during their early stages affects their lives in many ways (Tompkins, 2003). A positive parenting behavior involves limiting exposure of children to violent acts. On the other, violence forms, one of the most favorite television shows for most of the people. Violent producers, on the other hand, claim that violent children find an attraction to the violent shows (Tompkins, 2003).

Television industry receives criticism on the basis that it leads to development of hypnosis. In addition, the television industry has the inherent characteristic of altering an effective growth and development of an individual. Children who watch television shows that have violent scenes develop an aggressive nature of reaction, and they become less sensitive to suffering and pain of other people. However, violent shows do not lead children to violent actions. The parents have a role to play in steering their children to the right path of life. Other psychological effects of the television industry include intellectual development, diverse growth of imagination in terms of creativity, and development of anxiety and depression. These factors form crucial elements of consideration of the marketing strategy adopted.

Evils Associated With Television Industry

One of the key evil acts associated with the television industry is the violence (Moorings, 2010). Most of the crimes that occur have a root on the popular television shows that have lurid scenes. Children are the main victims of television violence. Children who have had an experience of violent acts on the television shows react in an aggressive manner in comparison to children who have no prior exposure to television violent scenes.  Horror is an aspect related to violence. The adolescents feel comfortable to watch horror scenes since their emotions give them the desire of exploring and mastering everything.

The television industry has developed a cult of beauty for the viewers. This occurs since viewers are in a constant need of making themselves attractive as the television depicts. The society has a different perception on beauty; beautiful individuals may appear as sex objects. The beauty cult has developed as a key factor of determining the social value of an individual. Unhealthy habits form some of the discriminating key factors of the television industry. The industry has received an ending blame on the fact that it has encouraged unhealthy habits including alcohol consumption, smoking and harmful drug taking among the youth. In addition, television industry has received a reaction that it acts as a source of development of uncivil conduct and speech. This affects the young since they are in the stage of learning and implementing all the things they learn. These evil vices lead to development of children regarded as people who have poor social skills since their social interaction time is widely utilized on watching the television.

The inherent evils within the television industry form one of the key challenges to attain success and victory of the television industry. Therefore, there is a need of the television industry to formulate an effective strategy of addressing the evils. This will ensure that marketing takes place effectively, and a large population of the target market gets the message.

CONCLUSION

Television industry is one of the most widely utilized advertising channels by the majority of the organizations and institutions. The industry faces the challenge of limited freedom of operation that results from government policies that regulate the operation of the industry. The industry has received a varying degree of perceptions from individuals, society, and scholars. These perceptions may aim at discouraging effective use of the industry while other perceptions aim at encouraging effective use of the industry. Therefore, there is a need of the television industry to take into consideration the social, ethical, political and psychological factors that influence its operation, as well as marketing. This will aid in the formulation of an effective marketing strategy.

REFERENCES
Dunnett, P. (1990). The World Television Industry: An Economic Analysis. London:

Routledge.

Moorings. (2010). The Evils In Television. Retrieved from:

http://themoorings.org/life/separation/television/psych1.html

Rodiek, C. (2007). External Environmental Analysis-The U.S. Television Manufacturing

Industry. Germany: Grin Verlag.

Tompkins, A. (2003). The Psychological Effects Of Violent Media On Children. AIIPsych

Journal. Retrieved from: http://allpsych.com/journal/violentmedia.html