The Crown Land belongs to Maori. The land has an established management from the department of conservation. Within this Crown Land, swimming sites find their location. These swimming sites acts as key sources of income derived from tourists who find their way to the sites. This depict that the Maori Culture influences the New Zealand business activity extensively. In addition, the Crown Land has a characterization of acting as habitat for Totara forest. Totara forest produces fencing posts and wharfing piles that find market in Europe. Maori culture further determines who enjoys the benefits of the Crown Land through leasing the land to non-Maori population. As such, the Maori Culture dictates the business activities in New Zealand largely.
Maori Culture has a negative effect on other nearby communities. An example of this was Ngati Ata who signed a Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 and in 1862 with Crown estate. The Treaty honoring never occurred since Ngati Ata young men appeared rebellious during the New Zealand wars. This depicts that Maori culture had a strong influence on ownership of property and consequently, participation in the business activities within New Zealand. The act of not honoring the treaty with Ngati Ata depicts that Maori had a higher social status than Ngati Ata did; thus, Ngati Ata had no power to challenge Maori. This meant that Maori dictated what would happen in the business field while Ngati Ata remained silent in such circumstances.
According to Butler and Hinch (2007), the Maori participation rate in the tourism sector has found a tremendous increase recently in comparison to non-Maori participation. The participation occurs through entertainment of tourists, involvement in arts and crafts presented to the tourist, engagement in the process of cultural interpretation and accommodation of the tourist in the region. Butler and Hinch (2007) further claim that the demand of Maori cultural practices and the products has increased substantially in New Zealand. As such, the Maori culture and products have an influence in the tourism activity, in New Zealand. Therefore, Maori culture has a strong influence on the business activities since the Maori Culture determines the level of tourism activities to take place in New Zealand. In addition, tourism is a key source of income. As such, Maori culture influences the amount of income New Zealand earns from the tourism operations. Smith (2003) argues that, Maori culture demand in New Zealand has led to Maori having an effective control on tourism activities. This occurs since Maori decide what level or kind of cultural practices that tourist has a chance to enjoy from the Maori.
According to summer (2002), Maori owns the biggest proportion of the fishing industry in New Zealand. Unfortunately, Maori occupy the land that is rich with sources of fish. The established leadership of Maori, therefore, limits involvement of non-Maori in the fishing industry. In addition, the leadership dictates the level of fishing that takes place in Maori. As such, Maori have a great influence on the amount of revenue generated from the fishing industry in New Zealand.Question 2-Changes that have occurred in New Zealand in terms of heritage management:
The management took control over 110 acres of the Crown Land which surrounded the Crown Land reserved for Maori, which management was vested on the Department of conservation who could lease the land to people from, other different, lands apart from Maori. The heritage management team was debating about the issue of the land ownership and whether the indigenous people should have a share in the land and the issue was left for the NAGPRA legislation to decide (Sorensen & Carman, 2009). The Crown took the land from Ngati Ata promising to pay three thousand pounds, establish a school and a clinic, but did not honor the promise. The Ngati Ata, therefore, decided to purchase sixty acres of land instead, with the plan to replant the land with native vegetation and collaborate with the department of conservation to keep native birds. The Iwi took up the restored sixty acres, and the native trees acted as a tourist attraction.
The land of Te Whanga nui a Rangi has attracted many residents who are buying the vacant residential sections in order to put up a holiday home. There were also changes in the land ownership from community to individual ownership, which had no recommendation from Ngati Ata since it would lead to destruction of the historic pa, which they valued a lot. Establishment of new residential development (Totara Bay) is another dynamic in the heritage management.Question 3- Ngati Ata approach to heritage management:
Ngati Ati approach in heritage management had characterization of buying sixty acres of the Crown Land, and formulation of a strategy of restoring the native vegetation through replanting. This measure had an aim of restoring the natural Totara forest, which existed in the land. In addition, by collaborating with Department of Conservation Ngati Ata had plans of re-introducing the former birds that existed in the forest once the forest had the potential to create a habitat for birds. In addition, Ngati Ata have plans of establishing education centers that would act as sites for holding workshops, and teaching people how to make traditional clothing and baskets. Moreover, Ngati Ata ventures in cultural performances and production of traditional foods and art, which they would, sell to the tourist.
However, Ngati Ata does not propose any more development in the land. In this Ngati Ata argues that further development has consequences of destruction of the established living standards, which the community has ventured into preserving and maintaining for generations. In addition, Ngati Ata needs to maintain the natural beauty and health of the bay. The argument posed on this issue is that, population increase has a repercussion of environmental pollution. The pollution would result from the deposit of sewerage and rubbish into the water. Moreover, population increase would lead to a decline in the level of water, and pollution of water lead to decline in water quality that has side effects of affecting fish health.Question 4-changes in culture awareness and social frameworks within New Zealand:
The new settlers of the land of Te Whanga nui a Rangi were not respecting the culture, as their objectives were to put up recreational sites without considering the historical figures, which the earlier dwellers conserved. The district council also did not recognize the importance of the cultures and gave the people to utilize the land of the eastern edge of port Nigel for residential development. The oncoming development led to the dying away of the living standards, lifestyle and other traditions, which Ngati Ata was trying to preserve.
The aim of the indigenous people was to conserve the environment, set up tourist attraction sites and education centers for educating the visitors on the traditional Maori medicines, and making traditional garments. Nevertheless, changes brought about by the Taone Nui city council to allow private investors to settle on the land are ruining the cultural awareness. The social set up alteration took place since people from different regions were settling on the land, and this could lead to cultural disputes, and eventually there will be disrespect of people cultural beliefs. The living standards also changed where the people adopted the modern means and abandoned their culture; therefore, the new generation lack knowledge of their original culture.
Question 5-Paradox of environmental and cultural heritage management:
Smith (2003) argues that heritage sites and the related buildings significance does not lay on their revelation of the past or appealing aspects to the human eye, but perfect examples for future use. In this, there was room for the people learn from heritage diversity. As such, heritage significance lies more on the future than in the past. In New Zealand, environmental management had poor strategies of conservation of this heritage. For example, the environmental management was not active to protect the flora and fauna during the destruction of the forest to get poles and piles used in various ways, such as trading products. Despite the fact that, the poles had economic benefits since they would earn income after selling in Europe, in the long run, losses occurred in Te Whanga nui. This occurred since there was massive destruction of the forest, characterized of destruction of the natural vegetation and natural habitat of the wildlife. As such, the destruction of forest had a negative impact in the economy of New Zealand since economic gains derived from forest tourism declined significantly.
The Maori culture, on the other hand, had a strong influence on dictating who lives where in Te Whanga nui. In this Maori occupied the Crown Land and leased the land to non-Maori people. The Crown Land had many tourist attraction sites including the swimming pool sites. Absence of management of the sites had a negative impact of denying tourists a chance to visit the sites. This resulted in reduction, in earnings from tourism activities. The case of Te Whanga nui depicts that New Zealand has a rich natural and cultural heritage for tourist attraction. However, the management of the heritage has inefficiency. Consequently, New Zealand potential for economic gain from the tourist attraction endeavors has a limitation. The result of this is the decline in sources of New Zealand revenue.
Smith (2003) claim that Maori Tourism Federation has participated actively in protection and presentation of Maori culture, in all spheres of New Zealand with an aim of marketing Maori culture. However, the endeavors counter challenges since tourism activities vary with regard to locations, various sectors in the industry, as well as business level stages. Nevertheless, Maori has assumed ownership of key tourism ventures in New Zealand.
Bushel and Eagles (2007) argue that establishment of an effective cooperation of the indigenous population and tourism industry, aids in stabilizing the demand for tourism and improvement of local products quality. This kind of cooperation lacks in the case of Te Whanga nui a Rangi, as a result, the tourism sector earnings have no boost. Therefore, the tourism gains have a limitation in New Zealand.
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London: CAB International.Smith, M. (2003). Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies. 11 New Fetter Lane: Routledge.
Sorensen, M, & Carman, J. (2009). Heritage Studies: Methods and Approaches. 2 Park
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