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Bay of Pigs refers to when Fidel Castrol attempt to overthrow the government in the year 1961. In one of the south beaches of Cuba that was one of the flashpoints the war was pushed to the extent of blinking a nuclear war. ( Mosman, 2009) 

Federal Castro got the power through  armed revolt that ever threw Cuban director Fulgencio Batista.  The United States did not support the friendship that Castro had with the Soviet Union leader making them distract. A time before the inauguration the CIA briefed john F. Kennedy with an aim to overthrow Castro and create a government that was welcoming to the United States. 

Eisenhower who was the president of the united states in that era approved the CIA unit and their journey set off where they started by construction of training camps in Guatemala. Late that year the United States had trained a small army that would easily manage assaults and guerrilla warfares. ( Mosman, 2009) 

On the other hand, the anti-Castro exiled led by his former member of his government which was the head of Cuban revolutionary council. Mr. Jose Cardona being his name, he was supposed to take over the state if the inversion succeeded. Despite the plans to keep the inversion a secret. It unfolded to Cuban exiles in Miami. Castro also learned perfectly about the guerilla handing camps. The press was also openly reporting on the dealings as they spread-out. 

Early in the year 1961, after inaugurations. President Kennedy was strong-minded to disguise the United States support and he ordered an inversion. At the southern coast of Cuba that was the landing point was made to be like a war camp which would be used to calm the little onshore force from the United States. 

The inversion was a plan oriented operation whose success was to leave massive destruction and on the desk. The inversion started by two air strikes at Cuban airbases and its purpose was to give a surprise attack. The paratrooper who had dropped earlier was supposed to cause disruption and confusion on the transport. Simultaneously, another troop was to cause disruption on the south eastern part of Cuba. At that time, the United States revolutionary front would send frontrunners from south Florida to establish a provisional government which was immensely depending on the joining Cuban population to the invaders. 

The very first attack happeded on April 15, 1961 where about eight bombers left the city of Nicaragua to bomb the Cuban grounds. ( Friedman,2011). The plan was to flame the Cuban troops. Unfortunately the bombers failed to efficiently hit most of their targets and this left a high percentage of Cuban aircrafts intact. When the news was broadcasted more supporting information proved that the united states troops were the ones involved in the attacks, this made president Kennedy to council the second air strike. Brigade 2506 which was a known Cuban inversion force landed on the beaches of Bay of Pigs on April 17th. Immediately under a massive fire, Cuban aircraft was heavily destroyed and they were left powerless. Due to bad climatically condition especially fog and massive rainfall delayed their work and left them to work under insufficient ammunition.

 Within twenty four hours, Fidel Castro had ordered more than 20000 troops to progress toward the beach where the Cuban air force where they had lived to control everything.. (Blight& Kornbluh, 1998) This made the situation to grow completely complicated making president Kennedy instruct air umbrellas join hands to defend the brigade-26 that was flying on Cuba’s environment. B-26 arrived an hour later where the pilots said that the problem had only being caused by change in time zones. The wars continued and more and more were killed by Castro forces and the others were imprisoned by them. At that camp, about 1200 brigades surrendered and more than 100 were killed. 

After the brigade captives had been jailed for more than twenty months, the United States decided to negotiate a deal with Fidel Castro that was guided by Castro’s demands and commands. Fidel Castro negotiated that America had to make contributions from baby food manufacturers, house rates to pharmaceutical companies where the amounts were supposed to reach up to $53 million which was expected to be exchanged with the prisoners. (Fisanick, 2004). 

On December 23nd, 1962 approximately two months after the negotiations, the first plane carrying the prisoners landed on the United States soil. Just a week later, President Kennedy and the brigades who had survived gathered at Miami orange bowl for a ceremony. At this ceremony, a flag was raised and President F. Kennedy assured them that the flag would be returned to that brigade in free Havana.

 Later reexamination of Bay of Pigs was based on a conference that was held in 1996 and its aim was to bring together a great number of groups that were in conflict. These groups included; anti-Castro Cuban operators, the CIA officials, embassy personals, soviet specialists in Cuba, scolers and also senior white house counselors. . (Blight& Kornbluh, 1998)  Thereafter there existed edited transcripts that contained higher volumes of information and also written appendixes that had been documented and protected in safe areas. Useful maps and two chronologies had also been prepared. All this tools and material have always been kept in the safest places of American and Cuban libraries for the generations to come.  

 The greatest beneficiaries of the inversions were Castro and the revolution because it had been weakening when hundreds of thousands of Cubans went through tough economic breakdown which was on the other hand being celebrated by Americans elsewhere. The emergence of the negotiations became as relief treat which brew off the Cuban bad economic conditions. (Blight& Kornbluh, 1998) 

After the creation of a commission that was supposed to flow directly from the American government to the Cuban people. Cuba started to experience greater economic changes and through that pace it was easily catching up with the other countries which were developing.( Friedman,2011).

 The main thing that lead the Bay of Pigs to fail was that they could have eliminated Cuba’s air force with the slightest force possible, but Cuba had intelligent air force which was able to sink into the interiors and harass the US bombers who were flying from Central America reducing their effectiveness. (Fisanick, 2004). This failure was also affected by decision of President Kennedy not to allow any plane with the US marking in Cuba and also he did not allow the navy to help in inversion. 

The massacre at the Bay of Pigs brought a permanent effect to Kennedy’s administration. Him getting determined to make up for the failed inversion, and also his plans to disorganize and sabotage the Cuban economy which was also referred to operation mongoose left a permanent mark between the two countries. Now more than fifty years later, United States and Cuba remains fragile and strained





Bay of Pigs. (2009). Mosman: IMinds.

Bay of Pigs refers to when Fidel Castrol attempted to take over the government in the year 1961. In one of the south beaches of Cuba which was one of the flashpoints the war was pushed to an extent of blinking a nuclear war. The overturning of the inversion made the United States to be punished in order to get its brigades back


Blight, J. G., & Kornbluh, P. (1998). Politics of illusion: the Bay of Pigs invasion reexamined. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Pub..

in the first four chapters the book talks about the inversion and the buildup of the CIA and anti-Castro’s confrontation, the war roles of the CIA, the efforts of the us government trying to topple Castro, their use of force and finally the homicides. The last two chapters try to set more light on operation mongoose, the fate caused by the rebels’ resistance and inversions aftermath,  more noteworthy topics which included the precise roles of key individuals, the act of decision making and its processes and also specific events insights and the decisions that were offered as well. 

Fisanick, C. (2004). The Bay of Pigs. San Diego: Greenhaven Press/Thomson Gale. 

The book is written about the long running and opposing views of two governments which dad different interests and also goals. Due to this the stronger country tries to colonize the weak one but this action is frustrated by a greater down fall which affects the growth of its economy.


Johnson, H. (1964). The Bay of Pigs; the leaders' story of Brigade 2506,. New York: Norton.

The book mainly talks about presidential transition in the United States, the things that it brought to America and the things that it cost it. The book concentrates more on the process that the war followed and the way it was resolved.


BAY OF PIGS CONFERENCE TO CATALOG DOCUMENTS.(NEWS). (1996, January 28). Daily News, p. 4.


In this article Blight and Kornbluh try to understand and apply several books written Cuban missiles crises. The introduction part of the article talks about how Cuba and United States came into terms after a war, while the last parts talks about how such situations are happening in the modern world.


Friedman, R. R. (2011, June 1). Crisis Management at the Dead Center: The 1960-1961 Presidential Transition and the Bay of Pigs Fiasco. Presidential Studies Quarterly1, 4.

The magazine mainly talks about the history of United States, the achievements and failures of the presidents. The reason that made their leadership success or failure. The magazine talks about a number of presidents and F Kennedy is included among them.

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