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Climate change is major threat to the development of Africa continent . This is because the African continent is venerable to many disasters , civil war , poverty and due to its overdependence on agriculture. This impacts are unpredictable rainfalls threatening food security, civil wars in scramble for limited resources, and the rising of the sea level threatening those living in the coastal areas. Africa Union (2007b)

Climate change is a significant lasting change in statically of weather patterns over long periods of time time normally 10-35years .Climate change is caused by several factors both due to man's activities and also these natural causes .Natural causes include volcanic emissions, mountain building, continental drift, atmosphere/ocean heat exchange, earth's tilt and ocean currents.

Man's causes include deforestation , Release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere .Mans daily contribution to climate change is evident through the following man uses electricity which is generated by generators that run on fossil fuels ,they release much amounts of of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas .Cars and most most mechanical run on fossil fuels releasing many gases into the atmosphere.Nowdays the use of paper is essential in most organizations .This papers come from cutting down our forests hence exposing our land to intense heating and making the soil prone to erosion .Timber which is highly used in the construction of houses comes from trees meaning that more trees are being cut down. Sagan et al., (1997).

In agriculture is the most hit sector by climate change , since agriculture mainly depends on rainfall , carbon dioxide, temperature , and glacial runoff, climate change has interfered with the balance of this elements leading to food shortage in both human and animal population. Also the release of greenhouse gases like methane , carbon dioxide , and nitrous oxide have altered the earth's land cover which can change ability to absorb or reflect heat and light , as a result of this phenomenon can lead to deforestation and desertification. This greenhouse gases are produced by the use of fossil fuels , and anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide. Lobell DB et al., (2008)

Due to increasing of global temperature it has let to the melting of ice on the poles .This deglaciation has let to the rise in the sea levels throughout the word Africa in particular with limited resources to curb the situation it has let to displacement of coastal population. This has let to loss of land and fauna and flora of the coastal region. In this case the African governments with limited resources in terms of gets pressure of resettling this people instead of channeling this money elsewhere. Sometimes this can lead to loss of life when this situation takes place rapidly. Smith, J.B., et al., (2011-05-18.)

Due to climate change it has spark many civil wars in Africa .The most evident one being the Sudan war of Darfur. This war has been associated with climate change .Most of Sudan being a desert thelse a struggle for resources .In 2007 the UN secretary general Ban Ki Moon Said that the conflict in Sudan's Darfur region as the world's first climate change conflict. The essence was that scarcity of water increase the chances of the conflict .This means that in periods of precipitation the chances of war could be low .

Climate change has let to loss of biodiversity ,due to changes in temperatures and it has altered many habitats of various organisms .Those organisms that are unable to adapt to the new conditions can face extinction .This is true because every organism is adapted to a specific locality and niche .If this are changed and the organism faces problem of adaption and mitigation , it will perish but those that well adapted will tend to survive. Barbault, R.et a., (1995).

Diseases like Diarrhea are common in Africa as result of climate change .When rainfall patterns changes i.e climate change has let to heavy rains in some parts of Africa this heavy rains has let to loss of homes including the social amenities .When sanitation is poor can lead to epidemics of waterborne diseases which has led to many loss of lives mostly affected being children below the age of five years . Parry, ML., et al, ed (2007).

Climate change has sparked human migration in Africa especially among the nomadic communities. In Kenya this this was evident in the recent drought in the northeastern province and the Rift valley .This forced the Maasai community who depend on livestock to move to areas where there was pasture .Some moved to game reserves overlapping with gamelife.This caused stress on the available resources leading to competition for resources leading to the extinction of the less adapted organisms. . Cowling, R.M., et al (1998).

Climate change has let to erosion and loss of fertility . Due to the vigorous of the hydrological cycle heavy rains has let to erosion of fertile soil leaving bare rocks in most farms in the continent .Due to loss of fertility in this farms it has intensified the application of organic manure to most of those firms .Unfortunately t his manure is swept away by precipitation and taken to the sea .This organic manure causes blooming in the sea .This is a great threat the sea life as the phytoplankton consume a lot of oxygen leading to oxygen depletion in the sea water .This has let to mass death of the fish in most of Africans waters leading to loss of biodiversity. Rosenzweig, C, et al (2007

Bird migration is a frequent journey undertaken by many bird species .Birds move in response to changes in food availability ,habitat or weather .As a result of climate change birds tend to respond to various phenomenon .When birds move from one habitat to another there those species that are not well adapted to the new environment as a result these mass deaths during migration from one place to another .There are those rare species that their populations are small , they are faced with mass deaths might result in their extinction .This might cause an ecological imbalance since those birds check out the population of some insect vectors .Some of those insect vectors are harmful they cause deadly diseases to the human population . Climate change has resulted seasonal migrations of those birds hence causing a constant ecological imbalance . . Peter Berthold et al., (2001)

Climate change has great impacts on that are affecting species and ecosystems around Africa the world . Africa in particular has been greatly been hit by by global warming .This has resulted in the the change of of habitats and niches of various organisms .Most of the organisms have optimum conditions for which it will survive best .when this conditions are below minimum leads to underperformance of those organisms and when it they fall the maximum it leads to deactivation of those organisms. Scientist by the name Schneider concluded that regional temperature were already affecting species and ecosystems around the world .He went further to conclude that climate change would result in the extinction of many species and a reduction in the diversity of ecosystems. Rosenzweig et al. (2007:81)

Climate change has resulted in severe poverty among the African population .This is because most of the African population depend rainfall for agriculture .This means that minus rainfall no development will take place .The rainfall patterns in the continent have virtually changed in the past ten years .This makes hard to the the African poor farmer to predict the when it is going to and when not ,also these lack of resources like money to buy farm input due to this severe poverty affording even fertilizer becomes a major problem .This has resulted in famine in most parts of the horn of Africa. Small scale farmers normally are the ones who are hit most since they lack capital to put up irrigation schemes to irrigate their farms during the dry season . Pearce et al., (1993)

In sustainable development climate change in the whole world has let to a range of activities relating to global warming ,and to influencing political decisions on global warming regulations. One of those regulations include the Kyoto Protocol, also major multinationals have played a significant role in in the politics of the global warming .


Climate change has a serious of impacts on biodiversity and food security in the continent of Africa .Therefore substantial efforts should be put in in heat trapping gas emissions in developed countries and adapt new strategies that are crucial ,as a result of this we must emphasize of conservation strategies occurring both inside and outside of the parks and and reserves .This Climate change can have significant number of impacts on biodiversity and food security in Africa. Therefore, substantial reductions of heat trapping gas emissions in developed Countries and adaptation strategies are crucial. For example, biodiversity must be managed to ensure that ensure that conservation is occurring both inside and outside of parks and reserves, and that adequate habitat is preserved to enable species—plants, Animals and human to migrate. The conservation of African biodiversity will ensure Delivery of ecosystem goods and services necessary to human life support systems. An integrated approach to environmental management is

Needed to ensure sustainable benefits for Africa.

Works cited

1. Africa Union (2007b), Draft Declaration on Climate Change and Development in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2 . Lobell, Burke, Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea, Falcon WP, Naylor RL (2008). "Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in the year 2030.

3. Smith, J.B., et al.. "19.5. Aggregate Impacts". In McCarthy 2001. 19. The Vulnerability to Climate Change and options for Concern: A Synthesis. Retrieved 2011-05-18.

4http://ourworld.unu.edu/en/does-climate-change- http://ourworld.unu.edu/en/does-climate-change-cause-conflict/

5. Barbault, R. and S. D. Sastrapradja. 1995. Generation, maintenance and loss of biodiversity. Global Biodiversity Assessment, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge pp. 193–274.

6. Parry, ML, et al, ed (2007). Climate change (2007.The adaptation and vulnerability contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. UK, CH: Cambridge University Press, IPCC.

7 P.W. Rundel, P.G. Des. Cowling, R.M., met and K.J.E.Esker.a 1998. Regional-scale plant diversity in southerAfrican arid lands: sub continental and global comparisons. Biodiversity Research, 4:27-36.

8. Rosenzweig, C, et al (2007). " Crops and livestock". In ML Parry, et al, (eds.). Chapter 1: Assessment of Observe d Changes and Responses in Natural and Managed Systems. Climate change 2007: The impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK: Print version: CUP.

9. Peter Berthold, Hans-Günther Bauer, Valerie Westhead (2001). Bird Migration: A General Survey. Oxford: Oxford University Press

10. Rosenzweig et al. (2007:81)

11. Pearce, D.W. & Atkinson, G.D. (1993). The capital Theory in the Measurement of Sustainable Development: An Indicator of

Weak Sustainability. Ecological Economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.BV, 103-108

12. Sagan, C.; Chyba, C (1997). Early Faint Sun Paradox: The Organic Shielding of Ultraviolet-Labile Greenhouse Gases Science 276 (5316): 1217–21

13. Nicholls, R.J., F.M.J. Hoozemans, and M. Marchand.1999. Increasing flood risk and wetland losses due to global sea-level rise: regional and global analyses. Global Environmental Change, 9:S69-S87.