Essays Samples

Healthcare Essay Sample-Eradication of Smallpox .

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Overview

Small pox brings with it many effects that have a negative effect on the countries health and economy. First, due to the high mortality rate, it brought in the beginning, the population decreased with the loss of important personnel whose ideas and techniques were required in building the country’s economy. The death of members of the royal families led to conflicts and wars due to the struggle for power and this largely affected the country’s economy. Smallpox was also brought about blindness mostly in the 18th century and this led to the loss of work force that could have helped in many areas thus the declination of the country’s economy. It affected the country’s health in that due to the means by which it could be transmitted, the environment was risky for everybody because one could easily meet an infected person without knowing (Stimson & Hodes, 1956).

Define eradication, extinction, elimination and control

Control is defined as the reduction of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity, or mortality to an acceptable level, as determined by the country or area in question. “Elimination” is defined as the reduction of disease incidence to zero in a defined geographic area; elimination requires ongoing public health measures to prevent disease reemergence. “Eradication” is defined as the reduction of disease incidence to zero; intervention efforts are no longer required. “Extinction” is defined as the eradication of the pathogen and the destruction of all laboratory isolates. Commitment to disease control, elimination, or eradication depends on the pathogen's biology and requires the political will and resources to maintain gains once they have been achieved (Mark & Henrik, 2009).

 

Describe the characteristics of smallpox that made it an appropriate candidate for eradication.

One of the main characteristics that made small pox a suitable candidate was its contagiousness that made it to be transmitted directly for one person to the other. This was very risky because it was very easy for one to contract the disease without knowing so the chances of one getting affected while just walking outside were very high. In addition, the disease could also be easily transmitted because an infected person could not show symptoms until an incubation period of around four days thus they could easily infect other people even without knowing they had it (Koplow, 2003). The other reason why it was prioritized was because it was killing many people therefore it had become an epidemic. This was because it was easily transmittable but had no cure thus led to the death of anybody who became affected especially young children. Its undistinguishable rash also helped in that it made it relatively easy to identify with the survivors gaining lifetime immunity. Lastly, it was reasoned that good vaccination coverage would interrupt its spread entirely in that its natural sequence gave the health workers enough time to isolate the victims, trace those who could have been infected by the victims and vaccinate the local population (Mark & Henrik, 2009).

Smallpox is a viral infection, which is unit to human beings. In order to keep on surviving, the virus has to pass from one individual to another in a continuous chain of infection. The virus spread through inhalation of either air droplets or aerosols. Between 12 and 14 days after the infection by the virus, the patient becomes feverish with severe pain all over the body and prostration. Two to three days after the initial signs and symptoms, rashes will develop over the victims face and spread to the extremities. Rashes soon change to vesicular and later to abscess. The patient remains feverish throughout the growth process of the rashes with considerable pain as the rashes increase in size. Progressively, scabs develop which in the end separate and leave bumpy scars on the body. In the second week after the emergence of signs and symptoms, the patient usually dies (Koplow, 2003).

Should a measles eradication program be initiated? Why or why not?

Yes! A Measles Eradication Program should be initiated. This is because it would greatly reduce the mortality rate that is increased by the annual one million deaths caused by measles. Hence, by initiating the program, more lives would be saved resulting into minimum or no deaths associated with measles. Another incentive for the creation of a measles eradication program is to save costs brought about by both prevention and treatment of measles. This costs amount to about 1.5 billion dollars, which is a lot of money and can be used for other significant projects if the disease is eradicated (Mark & Henrik, 2009). In addition, measles is an easily transmittable disease thus eradicating it would prevent its spread and save more lives. It would be also easy to start such a program because of the availability of accurate analytical tests. Consequently, because of the above reasons I would strongly recommend the initiation of a Measles Eradication Program.

In most developed countries, reducing death rates that result from measles infection is one of the priorities of public health sectors. We can define measles infection as the obstruction of transmission of measles across the world in order to stop the use of vaccine in preventing the disease. It is theoretically possible to eradicate measles in the world. This is because there is no animal reservoir that the scientists know to exist and the measles vaccination works with high efficacy. Eradication of the measles would preclude the need for continuous observation of alterations in epidemiology of measles that the measles vaccine may induce (Koplow, 2003).

If polio is eradicated, should we destroy all poliovirus samples? Why or why not?

Yes! Polio is a dangerous and fatal disease that affects small children mostly those below the age of five. The main reason for destroying all poliovirus samples is that if they are not all destroyed, one person may come across them and get affected. This may happen in the sense that as long one child contracts the disease, all the other children in other places are in danger of being infected too. Results of a research done on the victims of polio shows that one in every 200 infections leads to an irreversible paralysis, thus we can conclude that polio is a very dangerous disease that leads to paralysis therefore everything connected to it should be completely destroyed (Koplow, 2003).

In the year 1988, the world health congregation adopted a resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis across the world by the year 2000.in response to this mandate from the world community, the WHO lead initiative to eradicate with a focus on the following priority areas: development of policies, strategies and technical implication guidelines for poliovirus eradication. The initiative involved coordination of partners to ensure adequate technical and financial support for the initiative. It also involved the establishment of infrastructures, which included human resource, communication, and transportation within the WHO and polio endemic countries to ensure that corresponding activities were perfectively carried out. As we approach the world eradication, issues as when and how vaccination against poliovirus can be stopped have become increasingly important from both public health point of view and industrial perspective. This is because poliovirus vaccine producers may require lead time to adjust to changes in vaccination policy (Mark & Henrik, 2009).

The ultimate goal of any eradication program is to stop using the intervention and to reap the financial benefits of eradication. As poliomyelitis approaches, several strategies for stopping the vaccine are under consideration. However, stopping the vaccine may increase the susceptibility of population to poliovirus. The most important issue is to safeguard the population.  Therefore, for this reason, stopping the administration of poliovirus vaccination is the most critical and far potentially far-reaching of the entire eradication initiative. Several options for stopping vaccination are being discussed. The discussions carry with them advantages and disadvantages, potential long-term implications, and scientific gaps in the knowledge of each option (Mark & Henrik, 2009).

In 1965, why didn’t the World Health Organization immediately undertake a full-scale program after endorsement by the World Health Assembly?

In the year 1965, regardless of the endorsement of a full-scale eradication program by the World Health Assembly, the World Health Organization did not instantly commence it. This was because a group of people in the US Communicable Disease Center that was later called the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention doubted the sustainability of such an effort due to the previous considerable high cost they had incurred in developing the measles vaccine. They argued that the cost of the measles vaccine, which at that time was over one dollar per dose, was unaffordable to many developing countries. Dr, D. A. Henderson who later came to lead the World Health Organization’s small pox program, led this group. This led to the proposal of an alternative small pox eradication plan (Mark & Henrik, 2009).

References

Koplow, D.A. (2003). Smallpox: The Right to Eradicate a Global Scourge. California: University of California Press

Mark, M., & Henrik, B. (2009). Measles in Europe: an epidemiological assessment. Copenhagen: Statens Serum Institute

Stimson, P. M., & Hodes, H. L. (1956). A Manual of the Common Contagious Disease. Michigan: University of Michigan.

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Book Review Essay Sample -A Critique of Fahrenheit 451

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Fahrenheit 451, first published in 1953, is a novel by Ray Bradbury. It describes a futuristic society in which books are outlawed. The main theme of the novel is censorship and forced conformity on the people living in the society. Books are forbidden. In any case a book is found in the society, it is burned and its owner arrested. The title of the book symbolizes the temperature at which the paper of a book catches fire. The book was transcribed in the era of McCarthyism. During this period, Americans were wrongly accused of destabilizing the government of the United States of America. It was also a period of cold war and television was the major form of mass communication. The book tackles the leveling effect of consumerism and reductionism. It portrayed how political deals and advertising industry destroyed human individuality and creativity. The book is a work of fiction.  The poetic distinction of the author as well as his application of an alien world and visionary technology is clearly portrayed in this piece of literature. This essay makes a critical analysis of Fahrenheit 451.

Summary of Fahrenheit 451

Fahrenheit 451 highlights a series of events in a fictitious futuristic society. The story focuses on the spiritual and emotional development of Guy Montag, who is a fireman of the 24th century. Contrary to the normal fireman, the fireman in Fahrenheit 451 plays the responsibility of starting a fire instead of extinguishing it. The government carries out the mandate of seeking out, and eradicating books since it is against the law of the land to possess a book. The book portrays a world where owning a book is a capital crime that can only be punished by death. Montag together with his colleagues have been mandated to enforce the government regulation of eradicating books. This team has the authority to burn homes that are suspected of having books. These brutal acts together with other unfortunate events make Montag to become disillusioned, and he quits his profession (Bloom 7).

Surprisingly, Montag reforms, though he was the main player in the burning of books. One specific incident that had a great effect on changing the character of Montag is his interaction with a teenage girl called Clarisse McClellan, whose childlike mannerism initiates a state of consciousness in Montag. The suicide attempt of Montag’s wife as well as a reflection on their sterile relationship and the molestation of a woman who refused to surrender her books also contributed to the sudden change in the life of Montag. The chief of the firemen, Beaty, clearly explains the role of the burning mission in the society after it was apparent that Montag was in extreme despair following the violent death of Clarisse (Bradbury 163).

Critical analysis

            Fahrenheit 451 clearly brings out the concept of censorship. According to this book, it was illegal to read and own a book. Books were openly burned, and their owners condemned to death. The books showcase a future society that uses firemen to destroy the book with the aim of discouraging the society from reading books.  Censorship is the main theme presented in Fahrenheit 451. The impact of censorship is demonstrated by behavior, thought and submission. Since people often tend to act as their peers in various ways, censorship in appearance has become a dominant form of submission in the current world. In the novel, the firemen have a slogan to go along with their routine of burning books (Bradbury 8). It was against the law in the society to read books. Although Montag had read the books that he burnt, he told Clarisse that it was against the law to read the books. Just like Montag, many people often try to conform to the standards of the society. The novel portrays behavior as a negative form of submission in the current society. Talented and gifted people are prevented from excelling since they are not allowed to express their abilities.  

The novel clearly shows how the government can prevent the success of its people by limiting their access to information that might be important for their development. Preventing people from reading is a way of preventing them from thinking. When people are allowed to read books they would start to question the way the government is governing them and prevent it from controlling them like puppets (Bloom 13).

The novel shows a futuristic society where submission of thought is highly valued. There is a battle of having personal freedom. The book portrays the impact of denying men the opportunity to express their thoughts or remember their past. Although Clarisse was an intelligent girl, she was not allowed to express herself. She only confided in Montag because she considered him to be unique unlike other firemen who would not lend her an ear (Bradbury 24).

The author has succeeded in bringing out how the society can be infringed by the authority, standards or conventional beliefs. Censorship is prevalent in almost every part of the world. Examples of censorship include submission of appearance, behavior, and thought. The society tends to judge and discriminate people based on their appearance without putting into consideration their history and inner thoughts. It would be great if people learn to receive individuals the way they are and not the way they should be to be part of the society. 

Fahrenheit 451 is a work of science fiction that brings the future world into reality by connecting the various aspects of familiar things in the present world. This piece of art can be associated with the addicted nature of the current media.  Many people often spend more time on the internet or watching TV. The emergence of social media has promoted a sedentary lifestyle since we no longer go out for a walk or to meet someone. Regulation of media is necessary to eradicate a behavioral disease that has been brought about by pornography.

The underlying message in this book is media consumption. Books are burned with the aim of controlling the flow of information. Although information can be beneficial, certain type of information can be harmful to the mind and therefore needs to be censored. There are many types of crusaders in the current world who are trying to adopt what the firemen were doing in Fahrenheit 451.  For instance, some religious organizations have advocated for banning of books written by Harry Potter since they promote witchcraft. 

Work Cited

Bloom, Harold. Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2003. Print.

Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Del Rey Book, 1991. Print.

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Cultural Essay sample-Rhetorical Editing Exercise

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Cultural Battles among Superpowers

Over years, the cultural battles among superpowers have been an issue of concern among Americans. In order to remain influential in the modern social and economic issues, Americans have been using all means to retain their capitalism ideology. For instance, the National Security Agency collaborated with influential film company such as Hollywood with the intention of producing anti-communist movies (Bernard 76). The National Security Agency advised Hollywood Film Company to alter their scripts in order to remove any aspect that could demean the American population. Collaboration between the American National Security Agency and Hollywood Film Company led to the production of many movies that ignited patriotism among Americans.  Effective partnership between the Hollywood film company and government security agency also raised misgiving of communist activities in the country.  The available evidence further affirms that the anticommunist sentiment grew out of control hence working against the Hollywood company during the house of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) hearing on alleged anti-communist against the company (Bernard 76).

  The ever-increasing anticommunist sentiments also led to the loss of many lives and discrimination against communists in America. Unconfirmed accusations further state that many Americans and other communists’ believers failed to take part in court hearing and in answering critical questions. Moreover, the anticommunist sentiments had regrettable impacts among local population. The ever-increasing sentiments created confusion and misunderstandings among immigrants and native residents. For instance, Better American League of Southern California has identified almost two million Americans suspected to be subversive in the region (Bernard 82). Most of the subversive individuals encountered severe mistreatment including the violation of their basic rights, unnecessary blacklisting, and immediate dismissal from their workplaces. The level of mistreatment was dependent on the claims levelled against an individual.

Work cited

Bernard Lazare. Antisemitism: Its History and Causes. New York

Logistics Essay Sample

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Challenges of supply chain at international level compared to supply chain in domestic level

Supply chain integration at the international level has more complicated challenges than supply chain integration at domestic levels. Compared to integration at domestic levels, global integration is relatively expensive to manage and sustain. The process required utilisation of a huge amount of resources and workforce at all stages. Moreover, due to limited resources, most of the global supply chain integration is ineffective and unsustainable.  However, to counter the problem of limited integration resources, international business entities need to capitalise in their popular market locations. On the other hand, global supply chain integration also faces a challenge of lagging performances. The lagging performance is due to endless needs to meet the ever-changing demands of the company’s customers.  To deal with the challenge of lagging performance, modern business entities need to engage in detailed researches to understand the global market demands (Mallik, 2010)

The important of good transportation system over plentiful workflows

Although plentiful workforce is critical in a successful distribution centre, good transportation is imperative in advancing business reputation and profitability.  Effective transportation system plays a critical role in ensuring that customers get the required goods within the set time. Reliable transportation is also useful in minimising unnecessary destruction of business products.

 On the other hand, based on the available wide range of evidences, there is mutually exclusive trade-off between transportation technology and workforce (Mallik, 2010).  Gradually, emerging technology is substituting workforce in the transport sector. Studies further affirm that most entrepreneurs prefer modern technology, as opposed to increasing workforce because technology is cheap and reliable (Mallik, 2010). 

In addition, multimode distribution is turning out to be a major phenomenon in supply chain management. So far, there are three popular models for distribution, the multimode deport, centralised, and distributed model. Although multimode distribution model is popular among modern business executives, the strategy has various challenges such as high maintenance, the challenge in stocking, the demand for the huge number of employees, and the strategy inability to integrate modern technology. For example, the Beazer Homes Company in United States has been witnessing huge loss due to its overreliance on multimode model.

The impact of overreliance on global domestic supply over domestic supply in modern destruction and warehousing functions

The overreliance on global supply chain as opposed to domestic chain have largely altered modern destruction and warehousing activities. Global supply chain has forced modern business entities to integrate emerging communication strategy in the warehouse operations. Modern technology has been useful in facilitating effective communication between a local business and other global companies. In addition, the amount of destructions in modern warehouses has been reducing at an encouraging rate. Furthermore, due to increased reliance on global supply chains, most of the local warehouses are becoming irrelevant in the modern supply chain systems. However, to be effective in the modern market, the existing international warehouses need to be equipped with modern infrastructures to enhance quick and effective performance. 

Use of information technology in modern logistics

Contrary to other areas of business, logistic departments have not fully embraced information technology in their operations. However, the department has been using modern technology in competing effectively with other departments. In business logistics, information technology is useful in supporting electronic data exchange. Modern information technology is also useful in other activities such as reducing paperwork, increasing business profitability, advancing business competition, and improving effectiveness in billing system.   

Disadvantages of intermodal logistic parks

In most instances, the cost of land used in the construction of intermodal logistic park is relatively high and unsustainable to many businesses. Most of the intermodal logistic parks are also inaccessible to reliable market areas. The long distance between the logistic park and business markets reduces business effectiveness and profitability. Businesses that have established a functional intermodal logistic are required to share their profit with parks developers.

Meaning of logistics

Business scholars define logistics as the process of managing the flow of services and goods from the point of origin to business’s consumers. Logistics activities also involve laying out reliable strategies and mechanisms that ensure that the business meets the market need in the most appropriate manner. Logistic professionals are the main players in facilitating the formulation of reliable movement of good from one place to another.  Logistic managers have the role of managing the business resources, goods, and information. Logistic managers also have a responsibility of controlling, planning, and implementing of business internal marketing operations. Moreover, logistic professionals have the mandate of facilitating effective transportation, creation, and packing of business goods and services.

Important of electronic data transfer in modern business environment

Based on the available empirical evidences, electronic data transfer is vital in supporting logistics operations in the modern business environment (Christopher, 2010). Electronic data transfer helps in reducing the time required in reacting to customers’ requests. Electronic data transfer also support direct communication between business leaders and customers. Electronic data transfer is also useful in reducing the costs incurred in transmitting information from one point to another. Studies further affirm that electronic data transfer helps the logistic department to engage in productive disposition and planning. In addition, electronic data transfer assists in reducing manual data entry. The elimination of manual data entry reduces unnecessary errors in the business data entry.

Types of methodology in benchmarking logistic system performances

To compete effectively in the modern competitive electronic market, Apple Company relies on external benchmarking methodology. The company organises planned visits to other companies with the aim of advancing its performance. So far, benchmarking has been critical in helping the company produce high quality products that meet the market needs in a cost effective manner. External benchmarking approach has also proved effective in facilitating the understanding of some of the strategies used by other business to progress in the modern market. However, to progress in the modern market, the most appropriate benchmarking methodology for Apple Company is competitive benchmarking.  Competitive benchmarking will assists the company produces unique and competitive products in the market. The production of special products will be critical in helping Apple Company retain its customer and market position. 

Single sourcing strategies

Single sourcing is the process of identifying one source from a number of sources to help in the distribution of the business’s raw materials and finished products.   To facilitate effective single sourcing, business managers have an obligation of vetting all sources to identify a reliable supplier of the business’s products and services.  In respect to Global Logistics, post-terror on 11 September 2001, single sourcing helps in reducing the products’ variations. Business that relies on single sourcing produces products with similar quality and features. Single sourcing is also useful in reducing the training and operation cost. However,  although single sourcing have numerous benefits to the company, the approach  has several shortfalls such as the high supplier’s power and influence as well as the possibility of suppliers failure to supply raw materials in the most appropriate time (Wallenburg, Cahill, Michael, Knemeyer, & Goldsby, 2011).

Third party logistic service providers

Third-party Logistics Services Providers help in integrating transportation and warehousing operations in a business. The Third-party Logistics Services Providers are also useful in ensuring that a business produces products that meet the market requirements (Hertz & Monica, 2003). The third party is also valuable in accessing market condition and proposing effective means of improving the company’s products. Modern information technology and environment has assisted the Third party Logistics Services Providers undertake productive evaluation on the market demands.  Moreover, modern technologies have assisted Virtual Logistics Providers interact with other scholars in various parts of the world.  Modern electronic has also been helpful in assisting Virtual Logistic Providers adopt reliable means of enhancing operational efficiency.

References

Christopher, M.,(2010). Logistics & Supply Chain Management: creating value-adding             networks, New York, NY: Prentice Hall

Hertz, S., & Monica A., (2003).  Strategic development of third party logistics providers.        Industrial Marketing Management, 32, (2), 139–149

Mallik, S. (2010). Customer Service in Supply Chain Management". In Hossein Bidgoil. The    Handbook of Technology Management: Supply Chain Management, Marketing and            Advertising, and Global Management, New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Wallenburg, C., Cahill, D., Michael Knemeyer, A., & Goldsby, T. (2011). Commitment and        Trust as Drivers of Loyalty in Logistics Outsourcing Relationships: Cultural          Differences Between the United States and Germany. Journal of Business Logistics,           32, (1), 83-98.

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Healthcare Essay sample FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT

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Recent studies have confirmed that the management of healthcare institutions is entering a problematical and challenging era. With increased demand for quality services, rapidly aging population, and the introduction of new and intricate technology, contemporary healthcare institutions are demanding for qualified managers and leaders who have a stock of experiences and competencies in leadership and health care management.  Despite the increased complications in the management of healthcare institutions, education programs have failed to offer the required management skills among healthcare professionals. If the current management trend continues, healthcare institutions are likely to face serious challenges in the future

Based on the current trend in modern healthcare institutions, managers are likely to struggle with the management of their self-identity. Presently, there is increased competition between professionals’ clinicians and healthcare managers. Despite their clinical role, healthcare managers also engage in management role thus creating conflict between professional and personal pursuits. In reference to the ever-increasing need for leadership and management services in modern and future health care institutions, clinician managers are likely to have their clinician's responsibility sidelined by managerial role. For instance, a study conducted in 2000 by the American Medical Association in America confirmed that there exist tension between clinical professional role and managerial demands for resource reallocation, cost control, and leadership efficiency in American healthcare institutions[1].

Negative perception in managing healthcare institutions is also likely to be a major challenge in future healthcare institutions. So far, the prevailing harmful perception on the management of healthcare entities has proved to be a regrettable challenge especially among front line and middle managers. Individuals who hold leadership positions are in most cases criticized for being corrupt and ineffective.  By referring to the current perception and stereotype on health care leaders and managers, clinicians and other healthcare professionals who assumed leadership positions are likely to loss clinical visibility and respect. Future health care managers have a responsibility of dispelling the suspicion that choosing a managerial track is because of inability to pursue their clinical career. The hybrid roles of healthcare managers also conflicts with the personal value and professional codes of ethics. The increase in the complexity in management roles and limited tangible recognition or rewards for their additional role and responsibility is also likely to increase pressure among healthcare managers.

The intricacy in the management of human resources is also likely to be a future challenge in healthcare institutions. At present, a good number of healthcare institutions have a challenge in recruiting and maintaining skilled and competent healthcare professionals. This is owing to the increased competition for the services of clinicians especially in developed countries such as the United States and United Kingdom. The reduction in health professionals compared to high global population is also likely to pose a serious challenge in future. For example, in a research conducted in the United Kingdom by Schulz and Alton in 2004, future health care managers are likely to have a challenge of increased responsibility and lack of clear definition of their role in the health care system[2]

Consequently, if no immediate action is in place to counter the experienced threats in the management of health care institutions, future healthcare institutions are at a risk of having ineffective managers. Apart from the challenge of managing human resources, future healthcare managers are also likely to face the challenges of maintaining their identity and dealing with negative perceptions of their role. However, collective responsibility can have a critical role in dealing with the identified challenges. 

Bibliography

American Medical Association, Institute for Ethics, and Organizational Ethics in    HealthCare: Toward a Model for Ethical Decision-making by Provider         Organizations. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 2000

Harman, Laurinda. Ethical Challenges in the Management of Health Information. Sudbury,           Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2006

Schulz, Rockwell, and Alton Cornelius Johnson. Management of Hospitals and Health      Services: Strategic Issues and Performance. Washington, D.C.: Beard Books, 2003

[1] American Medical Association, Institute for Ethics, and Organizational Ethics in HealthCare: Toward a Model for Ethical Decision-making by Provider Organizations (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 2000), 65

[2] Schulz, Rockwell, and Alton Cornelius Johnson. Management of Hospitals and Health Services: Strategic Issues and Performance. (Washington, D.C.: Beard Books, 2003), 89

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