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Introduction

Drainage has various understandings in various concepts to be used. In agricultural background, drainage is the removal of excess water from the land as a way of reduction of water volume in place for reclamation purposes. In the reclamation, water may be removed to enable agricultural activities to be undertaken thus paving the way for agricultural growth.  In the reclamation of land, various cautions are taken into considerations to ensure there are no risks of soil erosion.  Water drainage techniques are measures deployed in maintenance of the drainage system in perfect match.

Drainage techniques

Surface diversion

It’s a form of drainage technique that entails diversion of surface water on the mines to reduce the accumulation of the water into the mines. It also reduces the spread of waterborne disease such as malaria (Lüthje, 2005). Water from acid producing areas is prevented from entering such areas through this technique. With this, it reduces the effects of AMD on nearby streams that receive water from such streams. Acid mine drainage (AMD)pollutes water in streams and can be reduced by construction of drainage ditches to control flow of water. Various techniques include; surface diversion, dewatering, inundation among others.

Inundation

Diversion of running water from acid producing zones helps in avoiding effects of ADM. It also helps in protection of water bodies that are habitats for living things. Inundation is applicable in areas with deep mines. It has been in successful use in various areas all-over the world (Beven, 2006).

Dewatering

Removal of water reduces the effects of AMD. It is done by preventing the reaction of water to react with other oxidizing agents.  Without water, the enhanced movement of oxidizing agents there are no observable effects of the water (Lüthje, 2005).

Material

Among the many materials are used in drainage construction is turf, soil and stones. Stones are mainly used as the building materials in any drainage construction. They are selected because of their nature. In selecting the suitable materials, nature of the material is a consideration observed. Caution ought to be considered in the following; sensitivity of material collection, topographical characteristics as well as the vegetation found to be matching with the drainage. Materials used are also affected by seeds, biodegradable materials as well as a fertilizer to be supplemented within the process of application (Beven, 2006).  In a drainage process, there are various stages that drainage undergoes. They include precipitation, infiltration, evaporation and finally steam flow as shown below.

During precipitation, there is the main input of water into the cycle. The level of the precipitate affects the whole drainage process. The main form of precipitate is rainfall which adds most of the water into the system. Once the water falls on the ground it penetrates into the surface thus being absorbed on the earth’s surface (Hornung, 2007). As precipitate increases, the level of infiltration changes depending on the type of soil on the earth’s surface. Evaporation is enhanced by the heat from the earth’s surface. It is mainly from sunlight which the main source of heat is. Transpiration is also among the evaporation process influenced by plants and prevailing climatic conditions. On falling of some precipitate, they may end up being trapped by trees and other plants. This process is called interception.

Finally, drainage system affects the amount of water on the earth’s surfaces. Depending on the processes available, effects on ADM vary from one point to the other depending on the amount of acid produced.  On consideration of the drainage processes, maintenance ought to be conducted on the various issues in the drainage system among them being reduction of effects brought about by ADM. With this, it is possible to reduce the side effects of acid rains on the water bodies. Caution ought to be taken in control of ADM and the appropriate routes to control the water ditches.

References

Beven, K. J. (2006). Streamflow generation processes. Wallingford: International Association of Hydrological Sciences.

Hornung, M. (2007). Drainage. Aberystwyth: The Group :.

Lüthje, M. (2005). Modelling drainage processes: a numerical and remote sensing investigation of pond formation on ice surfaces. Lyngby: Ørsted-DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet.

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