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           Flood is an overflow of water on the earth’s surface that is not normally covered by water throughout the seasons. It may be an overflow of water from the sea, lake, or dams due to heavy rains. De (2010) notes that the rise in water level resulting from flood often depend on the cumulative rainfall because the outflow of waters bodies such as lakes and rivers are dependent on the level of the lake. In the case study about the small town, the residents are notified regarding the forth coming flood in good time. The notice shows that the flood is caused by the previous experience of heavy rainfall. Just like any other risk, flooding is harmful and might be hard to control physically. Marsalek, Stancalie, & Balint (2006) assert that the flood emergency management is a cycle of events that include mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Therefore, the paper discusses how the rescue can be done to salvage the lives and properties in the town.

Pre-flood reduction stage is required to enable those based in the affected areas manage the risk emerging from flood. Public awareness, preparedness, and campaigns about flood defense should be planned and carried out by state authorities (Marsalek, 2009). The process can be done by raising community awareness about the disaster and offering the victims possible protection measures. These protection measures include aspects such as public education programs, awareness about flood prone areas, warning signs, and evacuation procedures. The study shows that an emergency notification was done such that those who adhered to the warning were saved. However, those who did not take the warning seriously found themselves in danger. Some families packed the much they could and went out of the town. Therefore, the appropriate intervention during pre-flood stage involves advising members of the public on the need to embrace and take the warning about looming floods seriously. After creating community awareness, possible measures to resolve risks associated with flood risk should aim at preventing loss of lives and properties and other possible destruction. The procedure should involve identifying the areas that are usually affected flooding and the possible damages that may occur. The previous history about the same hazard might be used. Thereafter, an analysis of the situation is carried out to speculate the outcome. For instance, the residents who adhered to the warning embraced measures such as wrapping plastic bags for safety. At the same time, the emergency workers mobilized the transfer of people to other regions that were out of floods. Some families were evacuated to safe place using boats. However, those who did take the emergency warning refused to leave the town and eventually drown in their homes. Overall, there should be emphasis about interventions such as educating the public about the importance of emergency warning. This would help in preventing the risks associated with the flood. 

Possible use of flood prone areas can be identified so that flood risks are avoided. For example, the space can be used for planting trees, sugarcane, rice or any flood resistant crop. To intervene, prevention can be done by ensuring there is an early warning system in the town. Educating people on effects of heavy rains, landscape of the town and vulnerability to the control systems. Developing evacuation plans is necessary. After learning about the looming danger, some families in the town packed the much they could and drove out of the region with disaster thereby enabling them to save their lives.

Post flood risk reduction can be applied to resolve problems associated with floods. Response to the risk occurrence among those in the town involves evacuation. The authority concerned should build facilities and structures that help in resolving similar risks in the future. Such facilities include dams, reservoirs, ponds, flood channels, and flood walls. Water for consumption can also be protected from contamination to eliminate introduction of toxic substances from floods into the water bodies supplying humanity.

After responding to the flood, people should focus on recovery through cleanup. Therefore, people should avoid building or staying in flood prone areas instead such areas should be reserved for other uses like constructing parks. The government should intervene by ensuring that implementing appropriate plans to evacuate people from flood risk areas. Moreover, there should be an elevation of residential areas that are flooded. It is further advisable for people to use water resistant building materials such as concrete to protect the building in an event of floods. Water tight flood barriers should also be use for basement openings in large buildings.

Concluding the recover should include development and rehabilitation from flood hazard. In the case study, families found themselves overburdened with financial obligations to buy new clothing, furniture, and household items. Financial aid program (FEMA), does not fully help recover the financial loss experienced by flood survivors. However, the government and the municipalities should participate actively in the rehabilitation programs. Programs such as job opportunities, donation, relief food, and other community aid programs can help salvage the situation.

However, legal, ethical and cultural issues may affect the intervention for flood risk either positively or negatively. Legally, the government should respond to flood incidences rapidly. The government should further have an effective legal team to work on programs to manage the flood disaster at various stages. Those who will violate the laws should be held responsible and face the law where possible. Training and educational programs should be offered as a method of intervention. From the ethical perspective, the community can embrace measures that are meant to control erosion by controlling the flow of water especially in steep regions. Moreover, the community should change its culture to enable its members invest in measures meant to control floods. Flood prone areas can also be converted into parks. The community should further change their perception regarding caring for those affected by disaster.


De, W. D. (2010). Flood recovery, innovation and response II. Southampton: WIT Press.

Great Britain. (2008). Flooding: Fifth report of session 2007-08. London: Stationery Office.

Marsalek, J., Stancalie, G., & Balint, G. (2006). Transboundary floods: Reducing risks through flood management. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.

Sene, K. (2013). Flash floods: Forecasting and warning. New

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