Sample free Globalization Essay

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Globalization refers to "greater movement of people, goods, capital and ideas due to

increased economic integration which in turn is propelled by increased trade and

investment". - Australian global education forum.

Globalization "describes the process by which regional economies, societies and cultures

have become integrated through a global network of communication, transportation and

trade" - Wikipedia. Globalization is driven by a combination of economic, technological,

socio-cultural and political factors and has increased greatly in the last two decades due

to improved technologies and a reduction of barriers. Other influences include trade,

Foreign Direct Investment, migration and the spread of technology. Companies now try

to produce goods in countries with the cheapest labor. Finance has become more readily

available and companies have been able to borrow on the worldwide financial markets.

On the industrial scale there has been an emergence of worldwide production methods

and broader access to foreign products which has led to increased cooperation between

companies in different countries.

With regard to culture, for example, Hollywood films being shown in developing

countries there is a fear that local culture will be lost. Some say that multiculturalism

promotes peace and understanding between people and others view globalization as

bringing a shift to a new form of monoculture i.e. the obliteration of culture as we know

it today. Technical improvements in relation to the internet, Social Media and Global

Information Systems and global telecommunication systems infrastructure have led to

increased communication for many people but those who do not have access to this

technology are left behind.

Negative effects of Globalization include the fact that some countries have not been able

to take advantage of the opportunities that it presents. In certain countries the standard of

living has dropped. The environment has been harmed as agricultural, forest, fishing and

mining industries exploit inadequate environmental codes and corrupt behavior in

developing countries. The major economic powers have a large influence on instruments

of globalization such as the World Trade Organization and this can work against

developing countries. Companies move to countries where labor is cheap and if the labor

laws improve them up sticks and move to another location.

Some countries complain of decreased sovereignty in decision making as a result of

globalization. Migration has spread diseases such as HIV/AIDS and TB and modern

communications have spread an awareness of the differences between countries and

increased the demand for migration to richer countries. The continent of Africa has

suffered a "brain drain" because of migration.

I think it would be fair to say that the Western World has benefited from globalization but

developing countries have not been as fortunate.2. DEFINATION OF TERMS.

Ethics - The philosophical study of moral values and rules.

Ethics- The principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a

social group.

Ethics - A system of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct.

Globalization- refers to the increasing degree of the economic interaction among


Globalization- is the integration of trade, capital, labor market, technology and investment

throughout the world.

Globalization is the process of increasing interconnections of individuals, groups,

countries and companies brought about by technological, economic and political changes

Concern(s) - Something that interests you because it is important or affects you.

3. Social and ethical concerns, with examples and their relevance to Kenyan

economic situation- (both positive and negative concerns).

Globalization is a complex, interdependent phenomenon, which is changing the world's

cultures rapidly, especially African cultures, where people are caught in the midst of new

economic and transnational crosscurrents.

There are life-affirming changes on many fronts — improvement in national infrastructure,

travel, communications, technology and health care. But these changes are giving rise to

some new ethical problems.

Rapid and irreversible changes are taking place in all African countries, especially in eastern,

southern and central Africa, the three emerging economic superpowers in the region. There is

an ongoing expansion of huge corporations, accompanied by impressive communication

networks. A super cultural force of economic authority seems to have emerged, which

influences the policies of the nation-states.

Some argue globalization is not a new phenomenon and that it has been a part of human

history all along. It is true the quest for transcending one's own world has been native to every culture from the ancient times, but the present trends are different in that they are

multidirectional and intense, accompanied by emigration, transfer of technology, business

outsourcing and communications on a massive scale.

As a transnational process, globalization has produced far-reaching consequences for most

African cultures, whose traditional values have remained somewhat stable for millennia.

Some religious leaders are alarmed by the invasion of market forces, which is seen as a new

form of colonialism from the secularized West. Nevertheless, the governments in these

countries are equally aggressive and relentless in the pursuit of new opportunities through

partnership with the West.

A number of modern trends are easily noticeable in African societies leading to serious

social concerns:

A). There is a strong element of westernization and a synthesis of various global cultures.

This is facilitated by the spread of new technology, which provides cable television, cell

phone, movie, music and video games. The new synthesis of cultures in African countries is

so powerful it is beginning to obliterate the rather well-defined cultural boundaries as well as

the specific social identities of the people. This cultural synthesis has become powerful

enough to alter the traditional mindset of the people. In Kenya, this began to happen on a

large scale when the country introduced sweeping changes in its economic policies in the

early 1990s. How to be a global partner, without losing one's cultural identity, has become a

crucial question in Kenya. Some bemoan the resulting consumerism and loss of languages.

B). There is a growing middle class in countries such as Kenya, comprising of 40 million

people plus, with an unquenchable thirst for consumer goods. The spread of new capital has

provided opportunities for those who have skills to participate in the growth. More jobs have

been created in the country, and there is a sharp rise in salaries and personal incomes for

millions of people. But the widening gap between the rich and the poor in Kenyan societies

has become a serious problem. There are millions who do not have the technological skills to

participate in the dynamism of globalization; they are thus marginalized. Today, even many

remote villages have some access to a computer, phone or cable television, but when it

comes to improving their economic status, they do not have the same opportunities.

Traditional workers — artisans, shoemakers, fishermen and small-scale farmers — have been

thrown out of their occupations, thereby creating economic problems for these families.

C).The influences of foreign media on the people of Kenya have been significant. These

influences are positive and negative. Transmitting information across cultures instantly has

helped in exposing human rights violations and abuses of ethnic groups. For this reason, for

instance, the authoritarian government in Uganda or the dictatorship in Ivory Coast tries to

curb the foreign media because of ―Western ideology and politics,‖ and their ―unwholesomeinfluences in broadcasting.‖ But we must admit the fact the global media is changing and

shaping the worldviews of the traditional societies through transnational programs; no one

has control over the nature of information received. This is seen as a threat to indigenous

cultural norms and practices. Nevertheless, Enemy nations can spread propaganda through

the Internet thus negatively scaring away investors.

D). There has also been an increase in crimes against humanity and violations of human

rights by different corporations, traders, governments and persons. These crimes, includes

but not limited to, human trafficking, drugs and substances trafficking, smuggling, sale of

sub-standard goods and exploitation of labour. These crimes have adversely and negatively

affected the Kenyan economic situations as many fear the vices and thus many investors keep

off the markets thus leading to a decline in the level of investment and consumer goods

available to the Kenyan citizens. This results to low national income and per capita income.

E). Due to the vastness of the global market and for fact lack of effective laws and policies to

regulate and control the activities in the market, criminals and terrorists have had a simple

time in organizing and executing their criminal activities. This has been enhanced by the

technological advances as sharing of information and communication has become the most

simple and easy advancement. Terrorists have access to sophisticated weapons enhancing

their ability to inflict damage. Terrorists use the Internet for communicating among

themselves. These crimes have scared away investors and market players thus leading to a

decline in the levels of investments and this leads to markets that cannot fully meet the needs

of the consumers thus warranting government intervention or even leading to illegal market

structures in quest to satisfy consumer wants, for instance, smuggling and importation of low

tariffs goods from other countries leading to dumping of Kenyan products in the markets and

increase in prices of less available products. The increase in prices has reduced the

government's ability to sustain social welfare schemes in developed countries.

F). Due to globalization many people have moved in Kenya due to the ready market of their

products, availability of job opportunities and in search of even serene environment to settler.

Criminals and terrorists have also moved in desire to find settlements in areas where

suspicion is less. This has led to congestion thus posing a great concern to housing facilities,

high congestion in urban centers, low levels of hygiene and sanitation facilities, social

amenities and even pollution of the environment. Companies have set up industries causing

pollution in countries with poor regulation of pollution. This makes the Kenyan market

places and urban centers filthy and this leads to use of a lot of resources in cleaning up, while

the resources could be channeled in other sectors. Polluting also leads to health concerns and

hence the investors are not willing to invest in dirty and filthy environment.G). Political

Some use "globalization" to mean the creation of a world government which regulates the

relationships among governments and guarantees the rights arising from social and economic

globalization. Among the political effects some scholars also name the transformation of

sovereignty. In their opinion, 'globalization contributes to the change and reduction of

nomenclature and scope of state sovereign powers, and besides it is a bilateral process: on the

one hand, the factors are strengthening that fairly undermine the countries' sovereignty, on

the other – most states voluntarily and deliberately limit the scope of their sovereignty'. In

this regard, many African states have lost their sovereignty as multinational corporations

conditionally invest in these countries. And in desire to attract more investors, most countries

ends up giving in to investor's conditions rather than the citizen's interest. Multinational

Companies and corporations which were previously restricted to commercial activities are

increasingly influencing political decisions

H). Fast food chains like McDonalds and KFC are spreading in the developing world. People

are consuming more junk food from these joints which has an adverse impact on their health.

This has resulted to more spending in health programs whereas such resources could be

channeled in the development of other sectors of the economy. This leads to low investment

and low income among citizens.

I). Globalization has led to exploitation of labor. Prisoners and child workers are used to

work in inhumane conditions. Safety standards are ignored to produce cheap goods. Job

insecurity. Earlier people had stable, permanent jobs. Now people live in constant dread of

losing their jobs to competition. Increased job competition has led to reduction in wages and

consequently lower standards of living leading to decrease in per capita income and national


J). Developing nations have outsourced manufacturing and white collar jobs. That means

fewer jobs for their people. This has happened because manufacturing work is outsourced to

developed nations like China and Japan where the cost of manufacturing goods and wages

are lower. Programmers, editors, scientists and accountants have lost their jobs due to

outsourcing to cheaper locations like India. This has also warranted the aspect of brain drain

as people move to search for jobs in well paying states and areas. This leads to low Gross

Domestic Product.

k). Local industries are being taken over by foreign multinationals, unfair competition of low

standard products, import of foreign varieties at cheaper rate has reduced value of Kenyavarieties and use of machines has lead to unemployment thus resulting to low standards of

living and per capita income

We must also appreciate the fact that globalization has had many and fundamental

positive impacts to our Kenyan societies. These include:

I). Cultural - growth of cross-cultural contacts; advent of new categories of consciousness

and identities which embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to increase one's standard of

living and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and

participate in a "world culture". This has thus resulted to understanding and cooperation

among states leading to increased market and capital flow among states and their citizens.

II). Informational - increase in information flows between geographically remote locations.

Arguably this is a technological change with the advent of fibre optic communications,

satellites, and increased availability of telephone and Internet, for example, social internet pages

such as facebook, twitter and 2go. This has greatly facilitated the exchange of ideas, research,

information and even market practices thus resulting to greater and effective awareness of available

product markets, prices and quality.

III). Social - development of the system of non-governmental organizations as main agents of

global public policy, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts. More so,

especially in Kenya, where many are living below the poverty line, many non-governmental

organizations that are multinational, have provided both financial and moral support to

Kenyan societies, these includes, USAID among others. This has enabled many citizens to be

economically empowered and participate in production activities and this has lead to increase

in the national Gross National Product and Gross Domestic Product thus more national

income and per capita income.

IV). Legal/Ethical

The creation of the international criminal court and international justice movements, crime

importation and raising awareness of global crime-fighting efforts and cooperation, the

emergence of Global administrative law and human rights movements have lead to more

awareness of fundamental freedoms and rights and respect of these rights by government and

persons. this has lead to improvement in the level of law and order and even execution of

justice which in turn makes Kenya peaceful among itself and with other nations. This has

attracted more investors as security is the most fundamental aspect of investment thus leading to more jobs to Kenyan people and also availability of consumer products at

affordable prices. This has also lead to improvement in the living standards of people.

V). Religious

The spread and increased interrelations of various religious groups, ideas, and practices and

their ideas of the meanings and values of particular spaces. This has lead to interactions

through seminars, creative ministries, retreats among other religious forums. This leads to

understanding and peace among member states and communities thus leading to security that

in turn encourages investment.

VI). Education and e-learning.

Private investment in educating sector, growing demand for learning to improve

competitiveness in the face of globalization in employment and the technological advances

especially in internet, have lead to increase in the learning facilities, improvement in the

education and high number of people carrying out research in their field of expertise. This

has lead to improvement and innovation in the consumer wants. This is crucial and

fundamental in every economy as it's possible to produce goods that can compete in the

global market.

VII). Health Policy - On the global scale, health becomes a commodity. In developing

nations under the demands of Structural Adjustment Programs, health systems are

fragmented and privatized. Global health policy makers have shifted during the 1990s from

United Nations players to financial institutions. The result of this power transition is an

increase in privatization in the health sector. This privatization fragments health policy by

crowding it with many players with many private interests. These fragmented policy players

emphasize partnerships and specific interventions to combat specific problems (as opposed to

comprehensive health strategies). Influenced by global trade and global economy, health

policy is directed by technological advances and innovative medical trade. Global priorities,

in this situation, are sometimes at odds with national priorities where increased health

infrastructure and basic primary care are of more value to the public than privatized care for

the wealthy.

viii). Spread of Technical Know-How.

While it is generally assumed that all the innovations happen in the Western world, due to

globalization, the know-how also comes into developing countries due to globalization.

Without globalization, the knowledge of new inventions, medicines would remain cooped up

in the countries that came up with them and no one else would benefit. But due to improved

political ties, there is a flow of information both ways. And this point - the spread of knowhow, can also be expanded to include economic and political knowledge, which too has

spread far and wide. The most obvious example of the spread of knowledge is that the Western world today are waking up to the benefits of Ayurveda and Yoga, while the Western

antibiotics and flooding the Indian markets improving the quality of life (and the longevity

too) of people in Kenya.

ix). Organizations for Environmental and Social Concerns

In cognizance of the damage that has been caused to our world over the years, the individual

nations have decided to come together to find a way to save our world from ourselves.

Organizations monitoring climate change as well as those which look at the welfare of our

animals and marine life, are undoubtedly one of the positive effects of globalization on the


Globalization has created many ethical problems that are beginning to surface with

greater force.

a). First, there is a new phenomenon of individualism, which is challenging the social

cohesion and extended family system. This has been influenced by the quench to search jobs

in other states, invest, trade or even relocate in areas where ones desires are fully met. This

has further restructured the cultural norms and values of communism and socialism thus the

poor are marginalized and they are left to languish in adverse poverty. This leads to classes

of poor and rich, thus the economic structure of the country is altered.

b). Secondly, the newly emerging employment patterns and the demands of the

corporations upon their employees have been placing new strains on the family. As in the

West, the emerging patterns make the employee an ―adjusted person.‖ Kenyan cultures

always have valued sacrificial love for one's family and adherence to basic traditional values.

These demands of the employees have lead to disintegration of social ties and family break

ups posing family problems more so where the bread winner is the one to relocate. These

leads to increase in poverty levels and increase in population as these people end up marrying

again in the areas of work. This leads to increased need of social amenities and thus posing

great economic problems to the nation as a whole.

c). Thirdly, there is a destabilization of the family. Traditionally, the family system that

served as the nucleus of indigenous social value system and the locus of child-rearing is

beginning to break down under the burden of the new ideology of economic growth. This

situation has resulted from the need for adjustment to the new socio-economic trends set by

market economy and the changing behavioral patterns of the workers created by the

multinational corporations. The family is becoming smaller and dispersed.

d). Due to increase of population in the Kenyan markets and lack of effective laws to curb

some illegal businesses that are of social nature has lead to increase of these businesses, they

include, prostitution, abortion, child trafficking, sale of pornographic and sex movies, drugs

and substance abuse. These are of great concerns in relation to ethics of most communities in Kenya. Deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS are being spread by travelers to the remotest corners

of the globe. These have lead to illegal networks thus resulting to moral decline and

unaccounted incomes in the national income calculating thus the figure given as national

income levels and per capita incomes are erroneous and thus leads to inaccurate and

improper planning as some problems are imaginary.

e). Kenyan laws, institutions and even the general public, have lost the integrity to curb such

vices as corruption and bribery. These ends up draining the countries resources to the chosen

few thus resulting to decline in the national incomes as many activities are not accounted for

and yet they are operating in the Kenyan markets.

f). There is increase in moral decline as regards to ethics of many Kenyan communities: many

unmarried girls and boys have even gone to the extent of sharing apartments and lack of respect to

ladies and the elderly has alertly increased. This has been due to the westernization of Kenyan

cultures resulting even to indecent dressing codes, public indecency of even kissing in public and

other obscene behaviors. This has made the Kenyan people and the communities lose their identities

as a whole.

g.) Tax Evasion Practices - used specifically to evade tax such as transfer pricing (i.e.,

where prices paid between affiliates and/or parent company adjusted to affect profit

allocation) including the use of tax havens, where any profit made is in low tax jurisdiction,

adjusted interest payments on intra-firm loans, questionable management and service fees

charged between affiliates and /or the parent company. Some traders ends up evading tax

thus robbing the government and the general public income leading to low provision of

public goods, for example, education facilities and infrastructure.


Though globalization has yielded these social and ethical negative concerns, we cannot

do away with it. As we have seen it has had even more merits I terms of economic

development is concerned which includes:

1. Globalization has created the concept of outsourcing. Work such as software

development, customer support, marketing, accounting and insurance is outsourced to

developing countries like India. So the company that outsourced the work enjoys the

benefit of lower costs because the wages in developing countries is far lower than that of

developed countries. The workers in the developing countries get employment.

2. Developing countries get access to the latest technology.

3. Increased competition forces companies to lower prices. This benefits the end consumers.

4. Increased media coverage draws the attention of the world to human right violations. This

leads to improvement in human rights among others.

However, the few noticeable negative concerns need address and the following can be used to

address the concerns or even minimize the severity of the effects.a. Formulation and implementation of proper and policies to curb illegal business activities

and other market crimes.

b. Cooperation among states to fully address the threat of terrorism by training security

personnel in the latest technologies and advancements.

c. Formulation of proper labor laws and regulations to curd the problem of exploitation of

workers and the improvement of working standards.

d. Communities should now embark in emphasizing their cultural norms but also revising

and repealing those outdated norms that are no longer beneficial.

e. Governments, social groups and religious groups should also through forums and

seminars educate it citizens on the need of the Kenyan communities cultures and fairly

shun those bad western cultures.

f. Prostitution and such other vices as child trafficking and abortion should be banned and

laws put in place to bring criminals to book.

g. Government and other organizations should take the initiative of making citizens aware

of their basic human rights and consumer rights to avoid exploitation and violation of

these rights.

h. Development of institutions and policies of integrity to curd corruption and tax evasion

and bringing defaulters to justice they deserve without affection or ill-will.

i. Protection of local industries through fixing of quotas and tariffs, and imports control

mechanisms in order to warrant employment to local citizens.

j. Formulation of proper standards and quality laws and institutions of integrity to curb the

effects of substandard products in Kenyan markets.

k. Multinationals should pay their fair share of taxes and cooperate with the local

governments in developing equitable laws and other back ground institutions.


It is difficult to ascertain the extent to which churches and other religious parties and

communities are aware of this cultural synthesis, social and the ethical challenges the

communities are facing. The need for cultural analysis and a communal ethics is urgent. The

family always has borne the brunt of social welfare in these societies by looking after the

young and the elderly, without institutionalizing them. The need for a proactive strategy to

deal with the crisis of the elderly never can be ignored. The ethics that deals with

transnational problems must be collaborative and life-affirming, which sees people as more

important than profit.

These were some of the positive and negative social and ethical effects of globalization. I

know that globalization has also created many positive and negative economic effects, but I

believe it's always better to look to the future with optimism and hope. Tomorrow, hopefully,

we will be able to minimize or even eradicate the evil forces that give globalization a bad

name. Thus we will be able to move forward with peace, harmony and prosperity as the

sovereign republic of Kenya.References:

1. Thomas pugel(2007), international economics, 14


edition,Irwin mcgraw-hill.

2. Jennifer A Zerk, Multinationals and Corporate Social Responsibility – Limitations and

Opportunities in International Law (2006, Cambridge University Press) 309.