Every day, a significantly large number of people from all over the world, move from rural areas into large cities. Over the years, this trend has become popular with the changing global economy. With countries growing rapidly, cities, which once used to be small, are expanding onto land not previously occupied. Urbanization has both adverse and beneficial effects. Individuals are forced to migrate to cities in search of jobs to improve their lives as a result of the low standards of living in rural areas. This is brought about by low wages and limited job opportunities in the rural areas.
Large cities are usually hubs of economic activity and significantly influence the development of a country. They provide a significantly large number of jobs and careers for the citizens. However, the phenomenon of city populations growing faster than city infrastructure can adapt is a cause for alarm. Migrants from rural areas often end up not finding their fortunes in the cities. The competition for available opportunities is exceedingly fierce. Thus, they end up becoming part of the urban poor. Lack of housing facilities forces individuals to set up shelters on city outskirts, mainly on publicly owned land and thus the mushrooming of slums. Slum dwellers often live in deplorable conditions without the basic necessities like electricity, running water, a proper sewerage system, and other urban services. In addition, slums become a breeding ground for criminals as a result of unemployment and poverty which force people into anti-social activities. A significant environmental impact of urbanization is pollution caused by the emission of toxic gases and wastes from factories and automobiles. This pollution poses immense health hazard too.
Though urbanization has its negative impacts, it has utterly transformed the urban areas. With new corporations and factories being set up, the number of job opportunities increase with high wages as a result of the high demand for new workers. Therefore, people in urban areas have a greater opportunity of succeeding economically and increasing their standard of living than their counterparts in rural areas.
urban migration will not stop any time soon.