Ethics sample essay paper

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Cultural beliefs illustrate theories, facts, norms, values, or principles that an individual needs to uphold while in the society. The society has a perception on various issues that surround an individual’s life. As such, the individual needs to adopt the perceptions and uphold them while in a given social setting. This calls for the individual to form bias based on these cultural beliefs and perceptions. Therefore, the cultural beliefs and perceptions have a significant influence in bias formation.

Cognitive Bias:

Individuals have an established belief and attitudes towards given information. As such, the individual uses this to develop a bias on any message that he or she approaches in daily endeavors (Dutta 52). This depicts that an individual has an established criterion of behavior evaluation in any given social setting. Therefore, an individual develops a behavioral attitude based on personal beliefs and perceptions. This results in formation of an attitude towards the behavior through extensive evaluation of the benefits and limitations of the behavior. In addition, an individual develops a susceptibility attitude towards behavior adoption. This occurs after consideration of benefits and limitation of outcomes. The driving force of this is the society expectations of one to uphold the cultural practices. The utilitarianism ethical philosophy developed by John Mill and Jeremy Bentham, calls for acting in the best way to benefit all the people in the society (Six Ethical Philosophies 1). Thus, an individual ends up forming a bias that reflects the society cultural expectations.

De-contextualized Bias:

Individual develop behavior traits, which result in isolation of behavior from contextual factors. This leads to formation of a de-contextualized bias. In addition, the status quo perception of an individual results in formation of status quo bias. Thus, cultural beliefs and perceptions on the possibility of behavior isolation results in formation of de-contextualized bias. Categorical Imperative is an ethical philosophy stipulated by Immanuel Kant that claims that at the event of rule establishment with regard to an idea or action, opinions or behaviors the rule adherence should occur throughout (Six Ethical Philosophies 1). As such, individuals have to form bias aligned with upholding of the established rule.


Individuals demonstrate some level of acceptable behavioral attributes with regard to personal characteristics (Carroll 10). These individuals are not monolithic on social concerns, cultural backgrounds, or personal preferences. As such, individuals have a low regard of cultural beliefs and perceptions and form bias based on personal characteristics. The individuals use association of gender, personal principles and ideologies for the purpose of bias formation. Moreover, some individuals have a high sensitivity of gender; therefore, they form bias in many applications based on the gender status. This depicts that biological factors have a key influence of bias formation among the individuals.

Intra-institutional factors:

Institutional pressures have a significant influence in bias formation by the individuals. As such, individuals form bias based on the expectations or code and ethics of the institutions they work. In addition, external factors surrounding an individual, such as politics have a significant influence in bias formation. This occurs since the individual needs to fit in the political environment or dislikes the political environment. The result of this is the individual forming a bias that favors personal preference on the political environment.


Cultural beliefs and perception have a significant influence in bias formation. In this, they dictate the expected moral aspect of an individual in the society. Therefore, an individual has to form a bias that has an element of upholding the cultural beliefs of the society. However, some individuals form bias based on personal characteristics, or influenced by intra-institutional factors rather than cultural beliefs and perceptions.

Works Cited

Carroll, S. The Impact of Women in Public Office. North Morton Street: Indiana University

Press. 2001.

Dutta, M. Communicating Health: A Culture-Centered Approach. Medical. Polity. 2008.

Six Ethical Philosophies. Retrieved from: