Essays Samples

Child Psychology

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Discuss the role of parents and peers in childhood and adolescent development and compare the influence of each.

Development of an individual from infancy, childhood, all through adolescence to adulthood is influenced by various factors. Some of these factors influence the individual’s behavior and shape his or her character. Parents and siblings nurture the child in the primary socialization category. School and the teachers are also involved at this stage. In the adolescence period, the individuals undergo secondary socialization. This is when new people start influencing his or her behaviors. Adolescents’ join peer groups and also pay more attention to the social media hence acquiring new behaviors. Other factors such as emotional developments also influence the way individuals’ grow and develop. This paper seeks to analyze the role of parents and peers in childhood and adolescent develop (Bukatko & Daehler, 2011, p. 62). It also seeks to unveil their influences’ and compare them. Good parental care during childhood development also aids in brain development of the child.

Parents influence almost all the aspects of development in a child. Firstly, the parenting styles used to bring up a child influences its development. Decent parenting skills ensure wellbeing of a child and also its social mobility. Parents have a crucial role especially in the educational activities they offer to the children at the early stages of development. Parents ought to have a good home learning atmosphere so as to aid in childhood developments. Another vital role is the need for parents to have good relationships amongst themselves. This should also be extended toward their children and peers so as to nurture children in a good manner. Parents should also be fully involved in what the children do in the household. Parent involvement is very crucial as the child’s cognitive ability thrives. Parents also have a role in ensuring that the child is in good health. Here, obesity is mainly watched out and tackled at an early stage if it appears. The major factor that parents should observe is setting up a good example towards the children. Parents have a duty to strive and be good role models to their young ones. If a parent is a good role model, the child tries to emulate the goodness hence healthy m oral development. Peers also have a role in supporting children in childhood development (Campbell, 2008, p. 73).

Their main duties are to set a healthy environment for child development and be good role models. Another demanding task for the parents in childhood development is interaction. Interaction ensures that a trusted relationship is established hence perfect development. Parents should also have good emotional identification. This helps the child realize the world and the things in it, the ones that are good and those that are bad and harmful. Family stories should also be narrated to children by both peers and parents. Positive stories helps raise a child’s esteem. Peers also influence childhood development. A child is defined by the United Nations as any individual below the age of eight years. As every child develops, he or she tends to make friends and form social groups. These social groups are steered by elder children hence are peers to the younger children. Here, younger children tend to imitate the behaviors of the older ones hence their childhood development process is altered (Ladd, 2005, p. 47). Peers aid the children in teaching them new vocabularies and socializing them into the larger society.

Another stage in the development of an individual is during adolescent period. At this period, the adolescent requires a new way of handling him or her and the parents’ aid too in the development. Parents have a duty of establishing a supportive relationship with family member and other friends. This gives the adolescent a sense of having a supportive family hence will in turn have a positive transition and development. Parents also, have a duty monitor the adolescents and ensure that they disclose what is in their minds. Monitoring ensures that the parents keeps track of the adolescent as disclosure aids in realizing daily activities and notice any deviation (Kerr, Stattin, & Engels, 2008, p. 34). Parents are also tasked with respecting the sense of autonomy in their adolescent children as well as ensuring that their information is well kept. Parents have a duty to realize begin of adolescence and expect change of behaviors. Conflicts are a common scenario during this stage and parents should know how to tackle them in most cases.

Peers also play a significant role in shaping an individual’s personality. At adolescence, peer groups are easily formed and shape the adolescents to face different life happenings. Peers and peer groups help adolescents in getting along with other people. This enables children to develop the necessary social skills and also realizing the dos and the don’ts. Peers also allow individuals to embrace moral values especially with parental guidance. Peers now have a chance to learn the required socio-cultural roles. They set their ambitions and life goals at this stage and a good peer group supported by parents works well to shape the adolescents. Peers facilitate better achievement of personal independence in various forms such as emotional support, social support, physical support and intellectual support (Levesque, 2007, p. 23). The peers also set a good ground of for experimentation with different identities and varying experiences. Here, peers develop a sense and also maintain and practice many cognitive and communicative roles.

In the past, an assertion emerged that friends played the biggest part in the development of an individual than the parents. I tend to support this stand mainly because children interact with their peers more than they do with their parents. This is a classic example of peer and peer groups during adolescent where adolescents detach themselves from their parents. If an individual meets a peer group that is morally insane and joins it, the parents would do little to stop the individual. This does not wholly suggest that parents do not offer to their parent, it means that friends and peers influence the development of individuals more that parents.

In conclusion, development of an individual is a societal effort. If one is brought up in a drugs and gun totting society, it is very hard to escape the same fate. This suggests that parents and peers ought to cooperate with other society institutions in growth and development of an individual. Positive support will ensure that an individual grows cognitively, psychologically and morally.


  1. Bukatko, D., & Daehler, M. (2011). Child Development: A Thematic Approach. Los Angeles: Cengage Learning. Print.
Campbell, O. (2008). The Role of Parental Involvement in Preparing Children Ages 4--6 to Enter School, Leaving No Child Behind. New York: ProQuest. Print.
  • Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Engels, R. C. (2008). What Can Parents Do: New Insights into the Role of Parents in Adolescent Problem Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Print.
  • Ladd, G. W. (2005). Children's Peer Relations and Social Competence: A Century of Progress. New York: Yale University Press. Print.
  • Levesque, R. J. (2007). Adolescents, Media, and the Law : What Developmental Science Reveals and Free Speech Requires: What Developmental Science Reveals and Free Speech Requires. London: Oxford University Press. Print.
  • Writing Topic on Osteoarthritis Nursing

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    Osteoarthritis (OA) is sometimes called the degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disorder. It is a type of a disease of the joints that may result from the break-down of the joint cartilage and the underlying bone. Some of the most common symptoms associated with it are stiffness and joint pains. At the initial stages, the symptoms may only occur after an exercise, but may become constant over time. Other signs of the disease may include swelling of the joints and decrease in the range of motion. The arms and the legs may also become numb and weak. The joints that normally gets affected include those near the ends of the fingers, lower back, neck, base of the thumb, knees, and hips.

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    Sample Essay Stress Management/Personal Development Project

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    Stress management is a term that refers to various techniques and psychotherapies that aim at the possible ways to control an individual's degree of stress, particularly chronic stress, often for the purposes of bringing improvement in that daily routines (Hardy, 1998). In this regard, the phrase 'stress' is used in reference to solely to the stress and substantial negative concerns, or grief in the lingo backed by psychologists instead of what some refer to as the HYPERLINK "" \o "Eustress" eustress i.e. a form of stress which has repercussions that are of help in one’s life. Stress brings about many physical and psychological signs that differ depending on one’s situational aspects. These could comprise of the physical health deterioration and the depression. The processes of stress management are mentioned as some of the pillars for a pleasant and effective life in the current life. Though life brings about many difficulties that can be strenuous in handling, stress management issues various methods of managing the nervousness and maintains general health (Somaz & Tulgan, 2003).

    Stress entails some feelings of straining and excessive pressure. Smaller quantities of stress might be desirable, helpful, and even fit. Positive stress can help in the improvement of athletic activities. It is also essential in motivating, adaptations, and reacting to the surroundings. But too much quantities of stress nevertheless, might result to numerous complications in one’s body that might be of very much harm. Stress might be external and connected to the surroundings, but then again might also be brought about by any internal perception that causes a person to be anxious or additional negative feelings that surround the condition, for example pressure, uneasiness, etc., that they at that time consider stressful. People undergo situations that are stressful, or have perception on things as being frightening, whenever they don’t consider that their abilities for managing problems (stimulus, individuals, circumstances, etc.) are sufficient to handle the challenges they are facing. Whenever one thinks that the demands which are usually about to be faced by us exceeds our abilities of coping with them, we eventually end up experiencing significant levels of stress (Ogden, 2007).

    Evaluation of the efficiency of different stress management approaches might be problematic, since there isn’t sufficient researching that has been carried out up to date. Therefore, the aggregate and quality of substantiation for the different approaches differ significantly. Some are taken as efficient remedy in psychotherapy, while others have insignificant roof supporting them and thus perceived to be HYPERLINK "" \o "Alternative medicine" alternative therapies . Most of the specialized organizations happen to be promoting and providing trainings in conventional or alternative therapy. There are many methods used in HYPERLINK "" \o "Scientific modelling" stress management, all having unique explanations regarding the appliances for managing stress. More study is essential to give a better understanding on what mechanism actually operates and is more efficient in practice (Schultz, 2010).

    Meditation triggers some biochemical and physical alterations in the human body jointly called the "relaxation responses". Relaxation responses comprise of the alterations in digestion, heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure and mind chemistry. The mankind’s nervous system is made up of the parasympathetic structure, that is meant for the regulation of the heart beat rates, respiration and various reflex motor activities, and sympathetic systems that arouse the body, making it prepared it for dynamic activities (Schultz, 2010).
    It is also perceived that particular examples of meditation could function by minimizing the activities in the sympathetic nervous systems as well as improving activity in the parasympathetic nervous systems or similarly, that meditation brings about a reduced stimulation and increased relaxations. Meditation enhances gray matter in particular parts of the brain and might end up slowing down the weakening of the brain as a way of the natural aging procedures. Studies have shown that those who were meditating have an improved thickness in their gray matter in their brains. The grey matter is accountable of devotion and procession of sensory input. It has been studied that the alterations in the thickness of brain is related on the quantity of time used while meditating. The growth in thickness can range from .004 to .008 inches (i.e. 0.1016mm – 0.2032mm) (Schultz, 2010).


    In this method of stress management, people hold stretches as a method of low-effect physical application, and is usually applied in the therapeutic dedications. Yoga can be carried out inside classes and might entail meditations, imagery, breath works and melody.
    Meditation and the exercising aspects of hatha yoga are been studied for the specific and HYPERLINK "" \o "Non-specific symptom" non-specific medical welfares. Hatha yoga has been researched to be a remedy for various situations, such as the back pains, HYPERLINK "" \o "Stress management" stress es, and HYPERLINK "" \o "Major depressive disorder" depression . Generally, it is essential in improving the quality of one’s life, but doesn’t treatment for diseases. Hatha Yoga might be efficient for a patient who is managing depression. Exercises and the mindfulness meditations aspects might be of help. Hatha Yoga has been associated with a more considerable reduction in the nervousness and greater development in the patient’s moods as compared to those who just walked. Therefore, Hatha Yoga can be a probable therapeutic process for those who have particular disorders. Also, Hatha Yoga might be efficient as one manages the chronic, though not severe, low back pains. Hatha Yoga treatment is effective for the chronic low back pains (Hardy, 1998).

    Spiritual insight

    The mind might have effect on the body and one’s body might end up affecting one’s mind. Since it is a crucial growth in the medical sector structures to have an understanding in these relations, spirituality concept comes into consideration. Spiritual insight is similarly if not more vital in the healing, since an individual's sense of self, beliefs in one’s life meaning or determination, and their relation to something better than their personal self might make them healed, have health, and be well. Most of the divine teachers direct believers to be at one with themselves, or their God or higher powers, and to have a small heaven on this earth. Practices including the prayers, meditations, and relaxation are also being used in the achievement of superior powers, peace, and internal wisdom (Schultz, 2010).
    Prayers, meditations and relaxation might trigger the relaxation responses - they lower the heart rates and breathing rates and reduce the hormones that trigger stress. These routines have also being used in the lowering of nervousness, stress, sadness, physical and passionate pains. One’s relationship with the spirits, whatever one’s philosophies, might reinforce one’s vigor and vibrant living forces; this might facilitate one’s abilities of staying well and recovering from diseases. One’s beliefs are vital to the abilities of getting better, staying well, or making peace amid the challenges of the circumstances. The gesture effects are usually appreciated by the medical studies whenever an individual has developments that can’t be attributed to the 'intervening' aspects of spiritualism, but might come from the individual's beliefs that could eventually be of assistance to the person (Schultz, 2010).

    Relaxation techniques

    Whether one’s stress is increasingly getting out of control or one has already gotten it in control, one might have some benefits understanding the relaxation practices. To learn fundamental relaxation practices is simple. Relaxation procedures also are usually free or of lower expenses, projects minimal risk, and could be carried out at any place (Hardy, 1998).
    Whenever on is faced with many tasks and tasks or the difficulties of diseases, relaxation tactics might help reduce stress. The practice of relaxation could help in reducing stress since it slows one's heart rate, lowers blood pressure, slows one's breathing rate, reduces activities of stress hormones, increases blood circulation to main muscles, reduces muscular tensions and chronic pain, improves attentiveness and temperament, lowers fatigue, reduces fury and frustrations and boosts poise of handling problems. However, one is required to have an optimistic attitude in life whenever undergoing through these solutions. One should always be looking for fun, problem-solving, management of time, doing exercises, having sufficient sleep, and to reach out to their allies and family members who are supportive (Hardy, 1998).
    In conclusion, stress can be treated by application of Yoga, spiritualism, relaxation techniques and meditation. However, everyone is advised to have a positive thinking regarding the current and future life. But, there isn't clear proof on the correlation between having a reach to the friends who are supportive to the reduction of stress. Therefore, this call for a future research on this matter since it could be economical and essential to the health of the society.

    Reference List

    Hardy, S. (1998). Occupational Stress: Personal and Professional Approaches. United
    Kingdom: Stanley Thornes ltd. pp. 18–43.

    Ogden, J. (2007). Health Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, pages 281-282
    Schultz, D. (2010). Psychology and work today. New York: Prentice Hall. p. 374.

    Somaz, W., & Tulgan, B. (2003). Performance Under Pressure: Managing Stress in the

    Workplace. Canada: HRD Press Inc.p 7-8

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    History Essay Sample:The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

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    ASEA is a political and economic association that entails ten countries that are situated in Southeast Asia. ASEA was founded on 8th August 1967 by Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Thailand. From that time, the members have increased significantly such that countries like Cambodia, Myanmar (Burma), Laos, Vietnam and Brunei. (Fry 25-32).

    ASEAN is covering a region of an approximate area of 4.46 million km², i.e. 3% of the whole acreage area of Globe, and has a populace of about 600 million individuals, i.e. 8.8% of the world's populace. The sea area of ASEAN is approximately thrice its land counterpart. In 2012, its collective nominal GDP had raised to at least US$ 2.3 trillion. If ASEAN were a solitary unit, it might be ranked as the eighth biggest economy on earth (Severino 17-18).

    Objectives of ASEA

    The objectives of ASEA comprise of the acceleration of economic development, social improvement, socio-cultural evolution amongst its membership, safeguarding of the territorial peace and firmness, and chances for membership countries to deliberate their differences in a peaceful way (NTI, 2014).

    History of ASEAN

    ASEAN resulted from an organization known as the Association of Southeast Asia (ASA), an association that consisted of the Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia was established in 1961.The alliance itself, nevertheless, got its establishment on 8 August 1967, after the foreign ministers of five countries –Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand – held a meeting at the Thai Department of Foreign Affairs venue in Bangkok. They then did the signing of the ASEAN Declaration, usually termed as the Bangkok Declaration. The five foreign ministers –Thanat Khoman (from Thailand), Adam Malik (from Indonesia), Abdul Razak (from Malaysia), Narciso Ramos (from the Philippines), S. Rajaratnam (from Singapore), and Thanat Khoman (from Thailand) – are believed to be the organization's Founding Fathers (NTI, 2014).

    The driving force that resulted to the conception of ASEAN was that its participants’ governing elites could focus on nation’s building, the shared fear of communism, decreased conviction in or distrust of peripheral powers in 1960s, and a craving for economic expansion. This bloc flourished after Brunei Darussalam had joined ASEAN on 8th January 1984; just a week once gaining independence on 1st January (NTI, 8).
    On 28 July 1995, Vietnam joined as the seventh participant. Laos and Myanmar (Burma) became members later on 23rd July 1997. Cambodia could have joined the bloc on 23rd July 1997 but was delayed as a result of her inside political fight. Cambodia later on 30 April 1999 was able to join, after her government had stabilized (Lee 24-39).
    The Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) (In 1992) system was signed up as a plan to phase tariffs and as an objective increasing the competitive advantage of the region as a manufacturing base aiming at the global market. This regulation was to be an outline for the ASEAN Free Trade Area (Severino 13-17).

    The basic principles of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia.

    The Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) in Southeast Asia was signed up at the leading ASEAN Conference on 24th February 1976 affirmed that in their inter-relationships, the High Contracting Parties were to be in line with the major principles like Conjoint reverence for the independence, authority, impartiality, territorial honesty, and state identity of all countries; the right of all these States to be leading its nationwide way of life free from exterior intrusion, treason, or pressure; Non-intrusion in the internal activities of the states; settling of differences or disagreements peacefully; refusal of the threatening or use of force; and operative collaboration amongst themselves (NTI par 4).

    Work Cited

    Fry, Gerald. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations. New York: Chelsea House, 2008. Print
    NTI library, "Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)." NTI library. NTI, 2004. Web. 1 June 2014 <>
    Lee, Yoong Yoong. ASEAN Matters! Reflecting on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2011. Print
    Severino, Rodolfo. ASEAN. Singapore: ISEAS Publications, 2008. Print

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    Scientific Essay Sample-Most Important Scientific Discoveries

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    From earth-like worlds to entirely new law-violating subatomic particles, human race has rewritten history through varied scientific breakthrough. Throughout the centuries; Biochemistry, Archeology and other scientific discoveries have branded new chapters in human development. Every discipline has contributed either positively or negatively in human genome. Some of the weighty scientific discoveries have refined nature despite the tremendous impact it has had on the world. Though viewed as common; electricity, penicillin and photosynthesis are most important scientific discovery by humankind. These discoveries are viewed to have a huge impact on human life however they have been overlooked as more subtle in nature.

    Discovered in 1821, electricity has changed life with commemoration of its pioneer, Michael Faraday. Faraday has been linked with other appliances such as generator and electric motor which have facilitated the running of other mechanical appliances. Electricity has made the life of humankind in varied fields more interesting, easier and enjoyable (Crick, 2002). The production of electricity has led to evolution of television, radio, refrigerators and computers. Electricity moves machines, starts engines and produces artificial light as well. In addition, electricity fuels our lifestyle which many people have been accustomed to. This has led to common saying that, “Electricity is life”.
    If not discovered, cancer and strep throat infections could still be a threat to human race but thanks to Alexander

    Fleming for his discovery. Discovered in 1928, penicillin has remained a mystery to many. Penicillin was discovered from fungi and mold which are considered unhygienic. Penicillin, when purified and isolated is used as an antibiotic. Its importance ranges from the varied applications to a medical substance. Penicillin is influential in curing of acute diseases. It is also an agent of good hygiene as it is used to destroy dangerous bacteria in human bodies. Penicillin has been a major boost in the medical industry as most of the medicines such as Aspirin contain penicillin (Walton, 2011). Thus, penicillin is vital for human health and hygiene as a medicine and as a component in several drugs.

    Photosynthesis is vital for balance of air for both animals and plants. Photosynthesis seems a subtle discovery but its one of the amazing discovery forwarded by Joseph Priestly. Both human and plants need adequate air for their growth, reproduction and locomotion. Through photosynthesis, Priestly advanced his explanation that animals consume air rich in oxygen while plants are the beneficiary of carbohydrates (Popper, 2009). This has made the plants and animals to effectively cohabit in the ecosystem without causing harm to the other. Through photosynthesis process, people have discovered measures of controlling the supply of oxygen by planting more trees. Thus, this discovery has benefitted both species leading to conservation of environment.

    Human discovery has no limit but it only depends on the area of interested. People have varied preferences for scientific discoveries ranging from Medicine, Engineering, Physics, to Biological Sciences. Each discovery has either a positive or negative impact on human life but positive effects are more influential. The field of Medicine has been boosted by the discovery of penicillin while photosynthesis has been vital in Biological Sciences. Physics has played a major role in the production of electricity which has improved living standards of people. Some of these discoveries may be seen as common place due to their existence but elimination of either of these discoveries will necessitate its significance. Thus, no discovery can be assumed as less important and necessary.

    Crick, F. (2002). What mad pursuit: A personal view of scientific discovery. New York, NY: Yale publishers.
    Popper, K. (2009). The logic of scientific discovery. New York, NY: Routledge classics.
    Walton, C. (2011). Time 100 new scientific discoveries: Fascinating, unbelievable and mind expanding stories. Boston: Time publishers.

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