Scientific Management Concepts At Woolworths Australia

Scientific Management Concepts At Woolworths Australia

scientific-management-concepts-at-woolworths-australia

Executive Summary

In today's competitive environment, companies have to take into consideration different factors to remain competitive. The ultimate success of a company depends on how well they evaluate the internal and external environment. Changes in the general market often happen during the lifecycle of the company. Changes in inflation, interest rates, political environment, environmental policies, level of technology and legal requirements. Companies can only react to this changes since they are out of their control. Other factors are internal and only unique to a particular company. These factors are within the control of company and can be exploited to benefit the company.

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Businesses are expected to make profits in the most socially responsible way. Consumers are more aware of how business operation affect the immediate society. Companies must therefore act in the most sustainable way. The report also evaluates some of the ethical and social responsibilities of a company, especially in the retail industry. Lastly, the report explores some of the roles of managers and how they affect the success of the company. Companies who have managers with the right leadership skill end up performing better in the market.

Introduction

Globalization and technological advancement have reshaped how companies operate and interact with tier customers. Many multinational companies are competing for the same customers and offering similar products. To survive in such dynamic environments, companies have to develop different strategies to gain competitive advantage. Failure to do this may pose a serious threat to the survival of a company. Companies must first scan their internal and external environments for various factors that might impact their performance. This makes it possible for a company to anticipate external shock, ride new trends in the market and also identify opportunities in the market. It also allows the manager to determine political, economic, technological and social factors that might affect their operations and how they can minimize any negative impact and exploit any opportunity. All these strategies have to be done ethically and follow societal norms and accepted practice in the industry

External factors that affect Woolworth Performance (2018-2019)

Managers have to continuously monitor and analyze some of the factors that can affect their performance. This makes it for them to develop strategies that anticipate these changes and prepare. The factors that affect the performance of a company can be general to the whole economy or specific tot e industry the company operates in. This section will evaluate the Australian general environment and how it affects the performance of Woolworth. The analysis will focus on the political, legal, economic, technological and social-cultural environment and how each affects the performance of the company (Frue, 2019).

Economic factors that can affect Woolworth performance

Economic factors greatly impact the operations of companies in a country. Australia economy is the 13th largest economy in the world with a healthy growth rate of 2.7% in the 2018/19 financial year. These benefits are easily passed down to businesses in the market.

The country is also ranked 10th by nominal GDP per capita. This means that Australian consumers have high levels of income and disposable income to spend on consumer goods offered by retail companies like Woolworth. The country’s central bank also slashed the interest rate in 2019 to 0.75% (Karp, 2019). Reducing the prevailing interest rates in the market makes it less attractive for businesses to save their money.

 A low-interest rate also makes it easier for individuals and businesses to borrow due to low associated costs. Businesses often take advantage of this and increase their investments. Low-interest rates also increase the number of money consumers has in the economy which leads to more expenditure. All the development makes it easier for Woolworth Inc. to operate in Australia. 

Another economic factor that is likely to affect the performance of Woolworth in Australia is the country’s rate of inflation. This inflation rate refers to the continuous increase of prices in the economy. The current inflation rate in Australia is 1.9%. This will reduce the purchasing power of consumers in the economy. The aggregate effect of that is reduced demand for goods and services, especially in the retail sector. Inflation can also increase the demand for goods and services in the short run. When consumers expect prices to rise in the future, they tend to buy more at the present especially for important and expensive goods and services.

Unemployment in the economy has a huge impact on the performance of retail sectors. The current seasonally adjusted unemployment rate is 5.2% in 2019. This is the highest unemployment rate for a long time. This means there are people willing to work for wages and salaries in the economy but cannot find meaningful employment. These are potential consumers who could purchase goods and services from retailers like Woolworth if they had an income. The sectors would continue losing out the rate of unemployment keeps rising.

The corporate tax rate stands at 30%which means all profit-making companies are mandated to remit 30% of their net income to the government. The sectors would lose out more of their profit if Australia were to increase its tax corporate tax rate.

 

Specific External Environment

Whereas general external factors affect all companies in the economy, specific external factors only affect the specific industry or company. Managers should closely monitor these factors to anticipate them and come up with better reactive strategies (Williams, McWilliams and Lawrence, 2017, p.46)

Industry Regulators

Several regulations touch on the Australian retail industry and therefore have a direct impact on Woolworth’s operations. The rise in the carbon tax is expected to increase the cost of operation of all retail companies. The expected hike of rates over the weekend and an increase in employees’ superannuation payment will also increase the cost burden to these companies and eat into their profit margins (Robin, 2013). All these industry-specific regulations will increase the cost of operations for retail companies. Woolworth should look into ways of cutting down on their cost to cushion their customers and also protect their profit margins.

Woolworth should adhere to all intellectual property laws in Australia. The majority of the retail player has developed proprietary laws that govern their intellectual properties and other related intellectual properties. These laws include patent laws that prohibit third parties from using the company name in their operations. Design protection laws help protect Woolworth’s product designs. Other retailers cannot copy the company. The company is also not allowed to copy the designs and patented properties of other retailers. There are also regulations governing the use of domain names when retailers are registering their websites. The law prohibits the use of a domain name that is already in operation.

The Australian government has regulations in place that govern the retail industry. The government has a statutory framework that makes sure retailers operates in a fair manner. Woolworth must make sure their operations are not unfair and put other retailers out of business. The government also has consumer protection laws. This law ensures that the goods and services offered by the company are safe and safeguard consumer rights. Woolworth must make sure its products show the ingredients in their products and how to use those products. The company must also make sure they don’t enter into unsolicited contracts with their customers.

As a major retailer with a considerable amount of customer data, Woolworth must adhere to Australian privacy laws. These laws make sure the company does not disclose customers’ personal information to third parties without their express authority. The company must also make sure they have a good protection system for their customer data that protects its form of cyber and actual threats.

Woolworth must also adhere to financial reporting regulations. The company has to make sure they remit their audited financial statement to the Australian tax authority and the Australian security exchange. These financial results must comply with the Australian accounting standards and be in line with IFRS.

The company must make sure they comply with all these regulations to be allowed to continue operating smoothly in the country.

 

 

Ethics and Social Responsibility (SR) In the Retail Sector in Australia

The general public expects companies to generate profits in honest and socially responsible ways. It is very difficult for managers to balance between being ethical and making profits. The majority of customers are now demanding brands to operate ethically (Williams, McWilliams and Lawrence, 2017, p.63). Ethics refers to upholding good morals and principles and values that over and above what are legal. For a company to uphold ethical behaviors, it should make sure it has good mechanisms of ensuring ethical behaviors internally.

Importance of ethics among employees

Employees should be trained on the benefits of being ethical in the workplace. This means they should avoid production, property, political and personal deviance at work (Meehan, Meehan and Richards, 2016, p. 390). This ensures that the company operates at optimal levels, employees don’t steal or vandalize company properties and that the employees with different views and personal opinions are respected. Woolworth has adopted diversity in its employment practices. This has led to a workforce of different genders, ages, race and cultural backgrounds that reflect the face of Australian society.

Stakeholder interests

Woolworth has ensured that it takes care of the interest of different stakeholders. Employees are paid above the minimum wages set by the government to allow them to live a decent life. Employees are also protected against work-related bullying and sexual harassment of any kind. The company has an open and transparent recruiting practice where employees are chosen on merit. The company has a comprehensive safety policy that ensures employees work in a safe environment with minimal hazards and that employees injured in the workplace are fully compensated and supported.

Ethics behavior towards customers

Customers are important stakeholders and determine the success of the company. Woolworth has taken deliberate ethical steps towards their customers. They charge them fair prices and make sure the goods and services they offer are of high quality (Nieh & McLean, 2011, p. 2). Customers get necessary information about company products such as ingredients, warranties, price, and instructions on how to use different products.

Ethics in management

The management team must also adopt ethical practices towards the company shareholders. Woolworth releases a quarterly audited financial statement to its current and prospective shareholders. This makes it for them to determine the financial health of the company and make informed decisions. The reports are usually accompanied by notes explaining the impact of different balances and off-balance sheet items not he company performance.

Woolworth CSR Activities

Woolworth has several corporate social responsibility initiatives meant to make positive impacts on society. The retail giant has been directing its surplus foods to help vulnerable people in society. The company has also been making major donations during natural disasters to help victims. Currently, the company has the OZHarvest where 50 cents on all food purchases go towards helping vulnerable Australians (Woolworth,2019). Through the FareShare kitchen initiative, the company has served food to many vulnerable foods.

The company has also been taking environmentally responsible measures such as using recycled materials and using renewable energy sources. All these initiatives have made Woolworth a socially responsible company with a positive image among its peers.

How Woolworth can utilize Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles to improve his performance

Good managers must possess the leadership skills necessary to deliver on their mandate. A good manager must be able to hold their team together, monitor and motivate them to deliver high-quality products and results. I do admire Colin Storrie Woolworth’s group portfolio manager. Colin has experience in portfolio management spanning over 20 years. He has worked for other major companies such as Qantas and AMP Ltd. He brings a wealth of experience in the company finance sectors and ensures the company invests in viable projects and holds a well-balanced portfolio.Mintzberg’s managerial roles concept divides the roles of managers into three major categories. The success of a manager in each category greatly impacts their style of management and the effectiveness of their leadership. 

Interpersonal roles

The first major category is the interpersonal role. Management requires proper interpersonal skills to deal with employees, customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders. As a manager, one is expected to act as a figurehead (Williams, McWilliams and Lawrence, 2017, p.8). These are often ceremonial duties such as interacting with customers and addressing fellow employees and other stakeholders concerning company operations. A manager is also expected to possess good leadership skills. A manager is expected to develop strategies for motivating employees to deliver high-quality results. Managers are expected to act as a liaison officer. This includes interacting with other companies and the department. I can perform these duties perfectly. I have good interpersonal skills such as good listening skills, friendly demeanor and outgoing.

Informational roles

Mangers are expected to play an informational role. This means as a manager, one has to scan the internal and external environment for any new trends and information that can affect the performance of their team, disseminate that information to subordinate staff and act as spokesperson for any factors that affect the performance of the company. 

Decision making roles

Managers are also expected to play a big decision making role. They must act as entrepreneurs and develop proper strategies on how to improve the performance of their subordinates and the department and sectors they represent. They should so allocate resources optimally within their department to achieve the highest possible results (Snyder & Wheelen, 1981, p. 21). Lastly, managers are expected to negotiate for more resources to help their department achieve superior results. 

From the analysis above, I can perform well as a manager. I do have good interpersonal and analytical skills. I can easily communicate with different people, scan the environment for any new trends and negotiate for more resources to achieve my goals.

Conclusion

Woolworth operates in a highly competitive niche. Its managers must evaluate external factors that affect their performance and develop responsive strategies that respond to those factors. The company must also identify specific factors that influence its performance. This approach ensures managers are aware of all factors that can influence its performance. Any strategy developed by the company must be socially acceptable and ethical. Managers must entrench ethical behavior to all employees. Woolworth operates in a sensitive industry and any unethical behavior towards its employees can lead to huge losses in the market. All these strategies can only be fully implemented by good managers who understand their roles in the company. Mintzberg managerial roles separate leadership roles into interpersonal, informational and decision making roles.

References

 Australia Population, 2019. Australia Population 2019. [Online]
Available at: http://www.population.net.au/
[Accessed 29 November 2019].

Berning, A., 2014.

Farfan, B., 2018. The Largest Australian Retailers. [Online]
Available at: https://www.thebalancesmb.com/largest-australian-retailers-2892105
[Accessed 29 November 2019].

Frue, K., 2019. PEST Analysis of Australia: A Brief Look into Politics, Economy, Society and Technology. [Online]
Available at: https://pestleanalysis.com/pest-analysis-of-australia/
[Accessed 29 November 2019].

Ghosh, D., Willinger, G. & Ghosh, S., 2009. A firm's external environment and the hiring of a non‐standard workforce: implications for organisations. Human Resource Management Journal, 19(4), pp. .433-453.

Karp, P., 2019. Reserve Bank cuts interest rates to historic low of 0.75% to boost weak economy. [Online]
Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/oct/01/reserve-bank-cuts-interest-rates-to-historic-low-of-075-to-boost-flagging-economy
[Accessed 29 November 2019].

Markus, M. & Robey, D., 1988. Information technology and organizational change: causal structure in theory and research.. Management science, 34(5), pp. 583-598.

Meehan, J., Meehan, K. & Richards, A., 2006. Corporate social responsibility: the 3C-SR model.. International journal of social economics, 33(5), pp. 386-398.

Nieh, L. C. & McLean, G. N., 2011. Succession Planning and Managerial Ethics in the Retail Industry. Organization Development Journal, Volume 29, p. 2.

Robin, M., 2013. New industrial relations laws are crushing retail industry: Australian Retail Association. [Online]
Available at: https://www.smartcompany.com.au/finance/economy/new-industrial-relations-laws-are-crushing-retail-industry-australian-retail-association/
[Accessed 29 Noember 2019].

Snyder, N. & Wheelen, T., 1981. Managerial Roles: Mintzberg and the Management Process Theorists., Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Williams, C., McWilliams, A. & Lawrence, R., 2017. MGMT3. Melbourne: Cengage Learning Australia.

 Woolworth , 2019. Making an impact. [Online]
Available at: https://www.woolworths.com.au/shop/discover/community#children
[Accessed 29 November 2019].

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Analysis of Wing by Macklemore

Analysis of Wing$ by Macklemore

analysis-of-wing-by-macklemore

Is the song “Wings” a reflection of today's society? “Wings” by Macklemore and Ryan Lewis talks about consumerism and how it has plagued almost everybody in the American Society. The perspective of the song is that a person’s worth comes intrinsically from monetary worth, particularly the items an individual owns (Genius). The song illustrates the concept of relying on materialistic possessions as a way to fit in.  According to Macklemore, "Wing$" explores the reliance on consumerism in pursuit of identity. He applies the song to illustrate the attachment and infatuation that people demonstrate towards logos, brands, labels, and the associated happiness linked to such brands and improved purchasing power. This study will analyze “Wing$” by Macklemore to explore how the ideas of the song and video related to the concept of consumerism, consequentialism, and advertising in terms of influencing personal choices through social influence.

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In the song, Macklemore shares his story about a pair of shoes he acquired as a kid. From Macklemore's standpoint at the beginning of the song, he believes he will be considered "cool" following his first purchase of a Nike pair. However, through a series of events in the song and video, he realizes at the end that they are just shoes only that the society shows more significance on such exclusive products. In the last fourth lines of verse one, for instance, Macklemore gives insight into the struggle to meet the expectations of society in terms of social status by making a comparison to be like Mike and trying to fit in. Also, in verse two, he talks about desiring the things that are hard to acquire because the products have a way to influence the buyers based on the value they are perceived to possess from the context of society. “So expensive, damn, I just got to flaunt it. Got to show ’em, so exclusive / this that new shit” (Verse 2) (Genius). This illustrates the influence that products such as expensive shoes have on social status, especially in making a person to be perceived as what Macklemore calls “cool.”

As a result, such influence in society shapes the idea of individuals that they ought to have modern products, especially fashionable products on the market to portray certain values. The outcome is to feel comfortable and fit in society with individuals they admire or see as part of their social status. The concept of exclusive the song illustrates is to try to have what others have to look special. In verse two, Macklemore talks about being part of a movement. He quotes, “I’m an individual, yeah, but I’m part of a movement.” "My movement told me," "Be a consumer"(Genius).  This implies that the need to comply with social status among individuals has an influence on consumerism decisions in society. Many individuals are caught up in the loop of purchasing expensive items to show off and fit a certain social standard despite their belief systems. This implies that social status pressure individuals to make choices based on what society values resulting in consistency in consuming patterns for identity modification. Further, the song quotes, “My movement told me "Be a consumer" and I consumed it/they told me to just do it / I listened to what that swoosh said"(Genius).  The song is acknowledging that Macklemore is only an individual whose choices have been influenced and shaped based on the social group that he relates to. Hence, the group has certain standards that filter what is cool or not. If he is to be part of the group, he must adhere to the social status of the group. Such pressure is what drives the young main actor to go for exclusive shoes to meet the social value that comes from wearing them. The social value related to products such as Nike result to the death of the friend of the main character

In the outro, Macklemore states that "So much more than just a pair of shoes / Nah, this is what I am / what I wore, this is the source of my youth / this dream that they sold to you" (Genius). At this point, he reflects his life as a kid when he was into fashionable designer products. He tries to illustrate how people believe that fashionable products such as shoes define their identity. Thus, looking back at once past, an individual can begin to understand how consumer products easily influenced his or her decision to fit in just as in the case of Macklemore. He ends up realizing that social status has a huge influence on consumption decision and from his viewpoint, such products are just consumer products that hold no real values.

The concept of the video aligns with the content of the song, following the association of Nike shoes with basketball and superiority. It makes and individuals appear cool in society something that most people enjoy in the culture. The objective of the video is to illustrate the perception errors most Americans are caught in since they relate expensive items with superiority. It uses the young body to achieve its objective without shaming its audience since many people can relate to his experience. The authors of the video do not portray the Nike brank negatively, but rather praises it and uses it later to point to the unreasonable amount of money people spend on such simple products. The video illustrates how expensive items shape and define the identity of individuals and his performance in basketball (Taylor). Further, it introduces another character with similar pairs of shoes and the main character. In this scene, the main character’s facial expression portray him as disappointed and unhappy upon realizing that the shoes are not unique. The last line of the song ends with Macklemore perceiving consumption as being part of Americans while illustrating his change of perspective that exclusive shoes like Nike are just ordinary shoes like any other.

To sum up, Macklemore comes to understand that social status has a huge influence on decision making, particularly in consumer products. He realizes that people try to go for expensive products just to fit in without considering what they are complying with. Hence, individuals reflect when they make choices to fit in only to feel foolish for making unnecessary purchases. Generally, "Wings" is trying to demonstrate how society influences people regarding how they should appear to appeal to certain status. When Macklemore is a grown man he understood that being a leader is all about going your direction and not being locked in a movement. The song is a good illustration of the length people are willing go to maintain a superior personality in society. It portrays the point that individuality is demonstrated through choices, values, and personality, as opposed to exclusive items.

 

Work Cited

Macklemore x Ryan Lewis. “Wings”, 2011. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gAg3uMlNyHA

Genius. Wings, 2019. Available: https://genius.com/Macklemore-and-ryan-lewis-wings-lyrics

Taylor, Core. Analysis of “Wings” by Macklemore and Ryan Lewis, 2014. Available: https://taylorc190eng101.weebly.com/digital-media-analysis/analysis-of-wings-by-macklemore-and-ryan-lewis

 

Reference

Burchill, S., Linklater, A., Devetak, R., Donnelly, J., Nardin, T., Paterson, M.,.. & True, J.(2013). Theories of international relations. Macmillan International Higher Education.

 

[1] Burchill, S., Linklater, A., Devetak, R., Donnelly, J., Nardin, T., Paterson, M.,.. & True, J.(2013). Theories of international relations. Macmillan International Higher Education.

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Wife of Baths tales

Wife of Baths tales

wife-of-baths-tales

Huppe, Bernard F.Rape and Woman's Sovereignty in the Wife of Bath's Tale. Modern Language Notes 63.6 (1948): 378-381.

The article tells the story of a young Knight who found himself in trouble after raping a beautiful young maiden during King Arthur reign. It elaborates of how this Knight was driven by lust and his own power to commit the act which he regretted for the better part of his life. The article argues that the penalty to his action was death by decapitation which the king granted. His sentence was immediately interfered with when the wife to the King and women in the high places in the Kingdom came in defense of the Knight and the queen saw it fit to punish the Knight in another way. She convinced the king that the Knight should do a research about discovering what women desire and present the right answer to this problem. Failure to this, the knight would undergo decapitation.

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It is claimed that the knight accepted another chance but he was a miserable person since he found it difficult reaching to the conclusion of the research. Women had different desires such as sex, money, or respect. The knight later took the advice of an old ugly woman who told him that women desire power over their men and respect. After presenting his solution, he was a free man but the old woman demanded that the knight marries her. The knight was unhappy until one day when he shared with the woman his desires. He lived happily after since he was married to a beautiful young woman. The article is great as it shades light on community values and the consequences of an individual raping someone. It also educates men about rape and its consequences. The main weakness of the article is that it seems more of a fiction than factual. The ability of the old woman changing from a group of many young beautiful women to an ugly woman is superficial.

Work Cited

Huppe, Bernard F. “Rape and Woman’s Sovereignty in the Wife of Bath’s Tale.” Modern Language Notes 63.6 (1948): 378-381.

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Wilson's Agenda

Wilson's Agenda

wilsons-agenda

Wilson's Agenda, Domestic Politics and the United States after WWI Armistice

The First World War brought down empires that gave rise to new nations and also led to tensions that were bound to remain for several decades. The entry of the United States into the war in 1917 changed it greatly. Through the war, the United States' potential to become a global power was heralded. Moreover, domestically the U.S was advanced but worryingly, vicious waves of repression were unleashed. The national pride was increased among the citizens who became dissatisfied with the leadership they had.

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Out of the depression that was experienced in the world's major economies, global depression resulted. It was actually a hard time for the United States and majorly the leaders in power[1]. The domestic environment in terms of politics and American society was a challenge to Wilson the president of the time in controlling his agenda even after a treaty to cease the war was signed.

By the time the war ended, Woodrow Wilson was the president in office in the United States. He had had an ambitious agenda of continued reforms including the establishment of the Federal Reserve Commission and the Federal Trade Commission. However, American society was very unstable and seemed to have lost trust in him. This was because initially, the U.S lived a separate nation with no interference in foreign affairs until President Wilson himself called the congress to declare war on Germany in 1917. The domestic politics in America as during the war the Americans had been awakened politically. It was thus hard for Wilson's government to rule effectively due to the many mistakes it hard done during its time of rule. Many of his agendas especially that of the U.S joining the League of Nations were rejected by the Senate.

Reference

Burchill, S., Linklater, A., Devetak, R., Donnelly, J., Nardin, T., Paterson, M.,.. & True, J.(2013). Theories of international relations. Macmillan International Higher Education.

 

[1] Burchill, S., Linklater, A., Devetak, R., Donnelly, J., Nardin, T., Paterson, M.,.. & True, J.(2013). Theories of international relations. Macmillan International Higher Education.

 

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Who Rules the World by Noam Chomsky Review Essay

Who Rules the World by Noam Chomsky Review Essay

who-rules-the-world-by-noam-chomsky-review-essay

The book Who Rules the World by Noam Chomsky is a book on the United States of America state in the International community. The book argues that despite the rise of other superpower countries, in Asia and Europe, the US still holds the throne in the global discourse. However, he questions some of the acts by the government, such as the underestimation of the role of nuclear weapons in threatening the state of the American land or the completely ignoring influences of the country together with nations such as Russia in contributing to war. The books mixed a historical and contemporary approach in addressing the United States politics, insisting on the freedom of speech and rights of expression as fundamental basics of the country that positively impact on the nation. Another point Chomsky raises is Donald Trump's elections and how the choice would affect local and international relations and cause a possible third world war. Noam Chomsky's book is useful in arguing its points through viable evidence, expanding the notion of foreign affairs as perceived by an insider, despite minor emissions. 

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The author uses evidence to support his arguments. For example, he makes brutally honest claims on the state of America's national security states. To him, the elite community cares less about the safety of the Americans because they view national security as a non-issue that the educated and reasonable people should not care about. He gives historical evidence that proves the case, such as the Second World War, the country and not involves itself in planning even though it was the worst war Americans faced militarily and economically. The land was the most powerful nation which had constructed nuclear weapons, which triggered the war. To Chomsky, the availability of atomic weapons in the first place was a threat to the Americans. He proves his case by analyzing the process through the study that showed the consequential impact of the presence of nuclear war, with most remarks proposing the destruction of the missiles. Chomsky invests in many forms of evidence in describing his arguments in the book, which support his analysis about who rules America, using quotes were necessary to reinforce his support. 

Chomsky's book has made me think critically about the state of the nation and the historical happenings in the country to other countries that were unnecessary. Through critically thinking on issues such as civil war through Chomsky's eye, one realizes that the weapons were unneeded weapons, and their presence only threatened the national security of the country. The drive for power guided the availability of nuclear gadgets instead of a need to keep America safe. Chomsky obsesses of American power over time, its effects on the country, and the outside. His perspective stance causes an individual to have a closer look at the history of the war in America, what promoted the need to have nuclear weapon despite the lack for power to support to the economically booming state of the country. In addition, the book has made me rethink the contribution of superpower countries such as Russian and European countries like the British and the United Kingdom among Asian countries such as Japan and North Korea in the creation of missiles. Do foreign affairs matter compared to the state of the American people, and what's the line.

There are several points that the author should have pinpointed more carefully. In his engagements with the foreign policy, he would explain more mainly on the contribution of other superpower countries in invading foreign land. For example, it does not emphasize the role of Vladimir Putin and Bashar-al-Assad in the continuing Syria war and how does it benefit these countries politically and economically. Besides, the United States has been accused of attacking the Iran community, a significant case referring to the Hillary Clinton era as the Secretary of State. Digging deeper into these cases would help the audience fully comprehend the intensity of foreign concerns and how they intermarry with the possession of weapons within the superpower country sphere. Even more, it would help keep critics of the book consider Chomsky and well invested in all the pros and cons of foreign affairs issues. Other than the concerns mentioned above, the book presents itself as informative and well versed in problems surrounding foreign policies, historical considerations of America and is place in the international community. 

Chomsky writes about the United States from different angles. First, he positions the country as still the most powerful nation in the world, even with significant developments among other countries as Europe and Asia. The writer sheds light on historical affairs concerning foreign concerns such as war and conflict. For instance, he talks about the impact of the Second World War and the role of Nuclear weapons in contributing to the violence. Chomsky is brutally honest in his analysis, which sets him apart in the write-up; still, he appears subjective, noting his point from his understanding of America's situation rather than objectively. Either way, the book in a masterpiece in helping understand global politics. 

 

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