A report is basically written with the aim of passing information to the reader on a particular subject, therefore, the writer must have the target audience in mind.
A report starts with a title page, which comprises of the title of the report, the name of the person writing the report, their occupation, and the date the report was completed. It should also have acknowledgements; that is, giving credit to the people who helped the writer through the writing process; they should be thanked, especially for their contributions.
Any writer must approach the writing of a report by structuring the outline . A report always starts with a Title and an Abstract, which help to attract the reader to the content. The title should state what the whole report is about, while the abstract communicates the significance of the report; a description of why the report is written.
The abstract in the report must tackle a number of questions; for instance, the writer must tell the reader the main purpose of writing the report. It must state the problem they are tackling, as well as give its background information in a clear manner. The writer must also give a reason as to why it is significant to solve the problem they discussing. The abstract should also state, whether the question the writer is discussing has been solved in the past, by giving details of past efforts.
It is important for the writer to state whether they have come up with a solution for the problem and if yes, they should state clearly the approach they have used and its essence. It must be clear how the solution the writer has come up with is viable towards the realization of the purpose of the report. The abstract should also state the organization of the report, it should be clear how the writer's ideas follow one another from the beginning to the end.
The introduction in a report should be brief, usually one and half pages to two pages. It should give the scope of the whole report. It also gives the purpose of writing the report, the literature review,the methodology which is the kind of data used and a brief outline of what the reader should expect from the report. The intro should be concrete and narrow to avoid confusing the reader. Use of illustrations also helps give the reader a good understanding of the report.
Arguments in the body of the report contain all the facts and claims of the writer to which the reader has to make a significance. The writer must make sure that theories, hypotheses and materials in the body of the report are clearly presented; it gives the reader credible proof of the writer's efforts towards developing the report, for instance, the discoveries one has made or the conclusions one has drawn from the report writing process.
The conclusion should summarize the main points of the report .The recommendation section follows which gives readers the directions how the problem the writer has tackled can be solved. The writer must give a reference section where all sources of information used are stated and they should be stated in alphabetical order. An appendix must be included at the end of the report, which shows supporting details for instance, experimental results, calculations, equipment used in conducting research etc.